EgIntOc

From Seshat Data Browser
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron; Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

♠ Original name ♣ Egypt - Inter-Occupation Period ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Inter-Occupation Dynasties; 28th, 29th and 30th Dynasties ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 404-342 BCE ♥ [1]

"After conquering Egypt in 525, the Persians faced repeated Egyptian revolts over the next century and a quarter, the first almost immediately after the initial conquest. Persian recovery efforts succeeded until the end of the fifth century, when Egypt finally broke away entirely."[2]

Preceded by Persians. Number of revolts against Persian rule. "Finally, in 404 BC Amyrtaios succeeded and took the name Psamtek, after the first king of the Saite dynasty, as a way of legitimizing his power."[3]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥

"native Egyptian kings repulsed Persian attacks decade after decade through the 340s and constantly instigated or supported challenges to Persian authority elsewhere in the eastern and Mediterranean and Aegean worlds."[4]

Presumably, in addition to using their mercenaries, were allied with Greeks in wars against the Persians?

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Achaemenid Empire ♥ Preceded by Persians. Number of revolts against Persian rule. "Finally, in 404 BC Amyrtaios succeeded and took the name Psamtek, after the first king of the Saite dynasty, as a way of legitimizing his power."[5]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ indigenous revolt ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Achaemenid Empire ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Egypt ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ [250,000-500,000] ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Memphis; Mendes ♥ Memphis? and then Mendes (29th Dynasty). "Only one surviving document - an Aramaic papyrus at the Brooklyn museum - gives any indication that the transferral of power was accompanied by violence anywhere in the country. The text describes an open battle between the founder of the Twenty-ninth Dynasty and his predecessor: Nepherites is supposed to have taken Amyrtaeus prisoner and then to have executed him at Memphis before establishing his native city as the new capital. [Mendes]" [6] "During the 1980s, the excavations of the Brooklyn Museum and the University of New York at Mendes provide evidence of Nepherites I's building activity there, thus backing up the claim that it was the Twenty-ninth Dynasty capital." [7] "However, Memphis reverted to its former administrative role for most of the Late Period (Twenty-sixth to Thirty-first Dynasties) (Jeffreys 1999: 488-90; Jones 1999: 491-3). A fortified Saite palace surmounted a 20 m high mound at Memphis, with colossal columns bearing the cartouches of King Apries. The city held a garrison, several temples, an Apis Bull embalming installation, workshops, housing for diverse ethnic groups (e.g., Egyptians, Phoenicians, Persians, Greeks), water channels, docks, and an outer fortification." [8]


♠ Language ♣ Demotic ♥

General Description

The Inter-Occupation Dynasties (Twenty-eighth, Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth Dynasties, 404‒343/2 BCE)[9][10] refers to the last period during which Egypt was governed by indigenous rulers, at a time when Egypt's external relationships with Greeks and Persians overshadowed attempts to maintain internal political stability. Forming part of the the 'Late Period' of Egyptian history, it spanned only about six decades in between phases of Persian domination.[11]
The Twenty-eighth Dynasty was established after a number of revolts against Persian rule in 404 BCE, and Amyrtaeus II, who ruled from Memphis, may have adopted the regnal name of Psamtik (after the first Saite king) to lend his rule legitimacy.[12] Although Amyrtaeus succeeded in extending his control as far south as Aswan in 400 BCE, where his rule was accepted by the Jewish community at Elephantine,[13] his reign was challenged and overthrown by one of his generals. An Aramaic papyrus at the Brooklyn museum describes a violent coup that unseated Amyrtaeus; according to the document, Nepherites I captured Amyrtaeus and executed him at Memphis.[14]
Nepherites I is considered the founder of a new dynasty (the Twenty-ninth). His new capital was probably at Mendes, where he carried out building projects, as revealed by excavations in the 1980s by the Brooklyn Museum and the University of New York.[15] Nectanebo I, founder of the Thirtieth and final native Egyptian pharaonic Dynasty, seems to have overthrown the last ruler of the Twenty-ninth Dynasty with the assistance of a Greek general called Chabrias, whose mercenaries are known to have subsequently helped prevent a Persian invasion of Egypt.[16]

Population and political organization

The most powerful elements in Egyptian society in this period were members of the the warrior class and priesthood.[17] The men who established the Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth Dynasties ‒ Nepherites I and Nectanebo I respectively ‒ were both generals, while Amyrtaeus II was most likely the grandson of another Amyrtaeus from Sais, who had rebelled against the Achaemenid occupation.[18] One of the first priorities of Nectanebo II when he came to power was to control the Egyptian army; to achieve this end he promoted his oldest son to the position of 'First Generalissimo of His Majesty'.[19] The 340s BCE were a time of insurrection, when Egyptians were fomenting rebellions against Persian authority across the eastern Mediterranean and Aegean.[20]
There are few sources to tell us of the workings of the Egyptian administration of this time, but historians agree that when the Persian Achaemenids conquered territories - including Egypt - they were generally happy to leave indigenous governance structures intact and did not seek to make wholesale changes to them. Egypt was made a satrapy, and the main task of the satrap in Memphis was to keep up the regular shipment of tribute to Persia.[21] It therefore seems likely that the Inter-Occupation Dynasties retained the administrative structures of the preceding Saite Period: a centralized court government with a warrior pharaoh and a vizier who ran his civil administration. This was the last period in which regional rulers called nomarchs formed part of the provincial administration.
The Late Period of Egypt saw an elaboration of debt and credit structures, to the extent that merchants could issue loans to individuals.[22] Though Persian coins were used under the Achaemenids, an innovation of the post-Achaemenid period of rule was the state minting of silver coins,[23] perhaps from the reign of Teos onwards. Priests were required to pay a tax in silver in order to secure donations to their temples; temples were forced to drastically reduce their expenses and use the savings to make loans to the king, who used it to mint coins to pay his armies.[24] Pharaoh Teos evidently had enough resources to launch an attack on the Persians in the late 360s BCE.[25]
Egypt at this time was a diverse, cosmopolitan state. Foreign mercenary forces recruited to defend the Egyptian homeland, a practice popular since the Third Intermediate Period, brought great ethnic and cultural diversity. The presence of garrisoned Greeks, Carians, Phoenicians, Cypriots, Aramaeans and Jews had been an important influence on Egypt since the Saite Dynasty and these groups had retained the languages and culture of their home communities.[26]
A significant innovation of the period was the widespread adoption of the qanat water supply technology, brought in by the occupying Persians in the 5th century BCE.[27] Qanats were sloping subterranean tunnels that conducted groundwater over long distances, creating a reliable supply of water for drinking, bathing and irrigation.[28] In about 400 BCE, the Egyptian population is likely to have risen to slightly over three million.[29]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron; Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [500,000-600,000] ♥ in squared kilometers

According to geacron map, Egypt in 400 BCE extended into Libya.[30]

Amyrtaeus's control reached as far South as Aswan in 400 BCE, and his rule was accepted by the Jewish community at Elephantine. [31]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [2,500,000-3,000,000] ♥ People.

McEvedy and Jones have Egypt at just under 3 million in 400 BCE.[32]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [50,000-100,000] ♥ Inhabitants. Memphis.

Modelski has Memphis at 100,000 for 500 BCE, 400 BCE and 300 BCE.

However, we need to check evidence for these figures.[33]

Demographic estimates for Ancient Egypt [34]:

Late Period to Ptolemaic-Roman: 1069 BC-AD 400
1. Largest towns. 85-170 ha. 25,000-50,000 inhabitants. 294 inhabitants per hectare.
2. Medium towns. 25-65 ha. 7,500-25,000 inhabitants. 300-385 per hectare
3. Small towns. 8-15 ha. 2,500-5,000 inhabitants. 312-333 per hectare.

AD: added 50,000 to the range to reflect a possibly lower figure.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥ levels.

This is the code for the Saite Period:

1. Capital

2. City
3. Town
4. Village


Demographic estimates for Ancient Egypt [35]:

Late Period to Ptolemaic-Roman: 1069 BC-AD 400
1. Largest towns. 85-170 ha. 25,000-50,000 inhabitants. 294 inhabitants per hectare.
2. Medium towns. 25-65 ha. 7,500-25,000 inhabitants. 300-385 per hectare
3. Small towns. 8-15 ha. 2,500-5,000 inhabitants. 312-333 per hectare.

"During the Late Period, provincial centers display much diversity and prosperity. Mendes, a city sacred to the ram god Banebdjed, contains a series of massive temple enclosures, a ram hypogeum, an elaborate shrine dedicated to Shu, Geb, Osiris, and Re, shrines built by Nectanebo I-II, private and royal burials (e.g., Nepherites), and other structures (Hansen 1999: 497; Redford and Redford 2005: 170-94)." [36]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels.

Centralized monarchy during the Saite Period prior to the Persian invasion.

1. King

"During the next six decades, indigenous kings ruled Egypt; this period is traditionally divided into three dynasties (Twenty-eighth to Thirtieth, 404-343 BC)." [37]

_Court government_

2. Chief official of court inferred from Saite
2. High Council inferred from Saite
2. Vizier inferred from Saite
3. Head of a particular domain inferred from Saite
4. Lesser administrators/scribes inferred
5.


_Provincial government_

2. level between nomarchs and the central administration?
3. Nomarchs? - presumably this was the last period in which we have local leaders called nomarchs
During the Saite period king Amasis "modified the role of nomarchs for the entire administration of Egypt." [38]
4. Village head

♠ Religious levels ♣ [2-3] ♥ levels.

Three coded for Saite Period. Any reason why the temples of this time should be less than three?

1. Priest in temple.

"During the next six decades, indigenous kings ruled Egypt; this period is traditionally divided into three dynasties (Twenty-eighth to Thirtieth, 404-343 BC). A major characteristic of the period, and within it of the kings of the Thirtieth dynasty, is the amount in temple-building, which stands in contrast to the Persian period." [39]


Example from Saite Period:

1. Chief Priest of Amun

2. Protector of the Priests of Amun of Teudjoi
3. Priests

Differentiation between priests: "Sizeable salary differentials existed amongst the priesthood in many temples. This is clear from papyri such as those from the Twelfth Dynasty royal mortuary temple at Lahun. Over a millennium later the Demotic papyri relating to Teudjoi again allow us a glimpse of the financial rewards available for priests at a regional temple of the Late Period. Revenue from temple lands was divided at 20 percent for each of the four phyles (of 20 priests), and the remaining 20 percent was assigned to the ‘‘Priest of Amun’’ and ‘‘Priest of the Ennead,’’ positions held by the same person in this instance (Vittmann 1998: 159, 490)." [40]


♠ Military levels ♣ [5-9] ♥ levels.

1. King

2. General (Greek)
"Another development is the extensive use of Greek mercenaries to prevent another Persian invasion, notably with the help of the Athenian general Chabrias..." [41]
3. "high commander" [42]

This is the hierarchy below "General" or strategoi during the Ptolemaic period from about 294 BCE. The mercenary forces at time numbered 10,000-20,000[43] and if they had their own general we could suggest it is likely they had their own command structure below him.

3. Chiliarchies 1024 men commanded by chillarchoi [44]
4. Pentakosiarchos c.512 men [45]
5. Syntagma c. 256 men commmanded by Syntagmatarches [46]
6. Taxeis commanded by taxiarchoi c.128 men [47]
7. hekatontarchiai c.50 men [48]
8. "16 units of 50 men, that is 2 per hekatontarchia" [49]
9. Individual soldier

Another possible code:

3. Mercenary captain
4. Individual mercenary
3. Captain of the machimoi (militia)
4. Militia men
3. Foreign general (ally) Spartan, Phoenician or Libyan.
4. Cavalry or infantry captains
5. Cavalry or infantry: individual soldiers.

Moved additional text to general description

There were also Egyptian, and Libyan forces in addition to those of the Greeks.

"We therefore find Hakor putting together a large force of such troops in the 385 BC and Teos employing 10,000 picked mercenaries in 361/0 BC, while Nectanebo II is said to have had 20,000 when Artaxerxes III invaded the country in 343/2 BC."[50]

343 BCE 20,000 Greek mercenaries, 20,000 Libyans, 60,000 Egyptians under Nectanebo II fought Persians [51]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present ♥ "high commander" [52] (professional officers inferred present)

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ "The enrollment of Greek mercenaries increased again under the last Egyptian pharaohs, who used both Greek mercenaries and Egyptian soldiers for military expeditions, for example when Teo attacked the Persians in the late 360s BC. But they also stationed them together in their garrisons, as during the second Persian invasion." [53]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ "Egyptian priesthood." [54]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred present ♥ Individuals at central government/court would have been needed to process the tax receipts. if Egyptian tradition had been followed from the Saite period one of the chief officers of state may have been the vizier. There also would likely have been specialist scribes.

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Classical commentators, writing from quite a different perspective, reveal without compunction the complex interaction of individual ambition untrammelled by loyalty or ideological factors whereby ambitious political figures seize any opportunity for advancement provided by the sectional interests of the native Egyptian warrior class, Greek mercenary captains, and, less obviously, the Egyptian priesthood." [55] This doesn't seem conducive to a meritocratic environment. About Nectanebo II: "Once established as undisputed ruler, this experienced soldier was well aware that the key to preserving his authority lay in keeping control of the army, particularly through his eldest son who was promoted ‘‘First Generalissimo of His Majesty’’ (imy-r mSa wr tpy n Hm.f)." [56]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Mints.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred present ♥ Caroline Arlte Ed: need to check spelling of surname book on Egyptian code.[57] The native Egyptians were keen to overthrow Persian rule so they must have had strong attachment to own culture and the legal code may have been part of this. "After the New Kingdom the kenbet appears to have fallen into disuse. The kenbet a’at (Great Court or Council) is still mentioned in Theban legal proceedings of the Third Intermediate Period, but under the Saite Pharaohs new expressions occur in legal documents. The cursive Hieratic script used for administration and jurisdiction was now replaced by Demotic, and many administrative and legal innovations were introduced. [...] In Demotic the expression awy wepy (lit. ‘‘house of judgement’’) is used for what seems to be a purely judicial institution, a ‘‘court’’ (Allam 1991: 116-17). This is seen as evidence that the formal separation between administration and jurisdiction took place in Egypt as late as the seventh century BC; earlier the kenbet had administrative and judicial functions, but the Demotic ‘‘court’’ was only judicial (Allam 1991: 119). It is difficult to prove that administrative and legal reforms had occurred from what essentially is evidence arising from changes in script and language. Furthermore, it is not at all certain that the kenbet was anything more than judicial, but the Late Period did clearly witness changes in legal practice, such as the growing popularity of written contracts, e.g. the marriage contracts discussed above." [58]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥ During Saite Period judges were in temples. If priests were judges then this was not a specialised position.

♠ Courts ♣ {absent; present} ♥ During the Saite Period there was a kind of court process but there may not have been a "court building". [59]

In Late Period Egypt "Egyptian women (unlike Greeks) could act in transactions on their own behalf and without any guardian whatsoever; equally, women could come forward in law-courts totally unaided as plaintiffs or defendants. And it is quite evident that women were capable of independent economic activities regardless of marital status."[60]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ "In the 5th century there appeared in Egypt an entirely new system of water supply, the qanat . It consisted of underground tunnels that channeled groundwater from aquifers over long distances and enabled the irrigation of large areas of land. Qanats as an irrigation technology are typical for central Iran and the likelihood that Persians introduced them into Egypt is great. The Egyptian tunnels remained in use into Roman times." [61]
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Canals ♣ inferred present ♥ Canal was dug during the Saite period. Was this still maintained?
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Memphis had docks. "However, Memphis reverted to its former administrative role for most of the Late Period (Twenty-sixth to Thirty-first Dynasties) (Jeffreys 1999: 488-90; Jones 1999: 491-3). A fortified Saite palace surmounted a 20 m high mound at Memphis, with colossal columns bearing the cartouches of King Apries. The city held a garrison, several temples, an Apis Bull embalming installation, workshops, housing for diverse ethnic groups (e.g., Egyptians, Phoenicians, Persians, Greeks), water channels, docks, and an outer fortification." [62]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥ "The Third Intermediate Period experienced a decline in quarrying and mining expeditions, but such activities are revitalized in the Late Period. For instance, Wadi Hammamat contained only one early Third Intermediate Period royal text, while more ventures are attested in the reigns of Shabaqa, Taharka, Psamtik I-II, Necho II, Amasis, Cambyses, Darius, Xerxes, Artaxerxes, and Nectanebo II (Meyer 1999: 870). Harrel and Brown (1999: 18-20) have surveyed a Late Period quarry and workmen’s huts at Rod el-Gamra in the Eastern Desert." [63]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ present ♥ Hieroglyphs.
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ Hieroglyphs.

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ "Demotic ostraca discovered in a temple attest to the villages’ existence from the late 26th to early 30th dynasties. The texts - still unpublished - often record transactions with water. Farmers bought the right to have water flow into their fields for a number of days and promised part of their yields in return. The contracts are dated in the traditional Egyptian way according to the regnal years of kings. They include both Persians and those who ruled when Egypt was independent from the empire. The changes in government did not affect how the records were kept." [64]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ inferred present ♥ "On the contrary, the assertion of continuity with older tradition is combined with the exercise of considerable invention and originality both in materials and iconography, producing some of the most remarkable sculpture in the entire pharaonic corpus. For other spheres of cultural activity there is sometimes an unnerving lacuna in extant material—there are, for example, no literary texts securely dated to this period. For all that, close analysis of such evidence as we do possess confirms that Egyptian society and civilization as a whole were characterized by the same traits as the visual arts. We routinely encounter features with which the student of earlier periods will be completely familiar." [65]
♠ Religious literature ♣ inferred present ♥ "On the contrary, the assertion of continuity with older tradition is combined with the exercise of considerable invention and originality both in materials and iconography, producing some of the most remarkable sculpture in the entire pharaonic corpus. For other spheres of cultural activity there is sometimes an unnerving lacuna in extant material—there are, for example, no literary texts securely dated to this period. For all that, close analysis of such evidence as we do possess confirms that Egyptian society and civilization as a whole were characterized by the same traits as the visual arts. We routinely encounter features with which the student of earlier periods will be completely familiar." [66]
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred present ♥ "On the contrary, the assertion of continuity with older tradition is combined with the exercise of considerable invention and originality both in materials and iconography, producing some of the most remarkable sculpture in the entire pharaonic corpus. For other spheres of cultural activity there is sometimes an unnerving lacuna in extant material—there are, for example, no literary texts securely dated to this period. For all that, close analysis of such evidence as we do possess confirms that Egyptian society and civilization as a whole were characterized by the same traits as the visual arts. We routinely encounter features with which the student of earlier periods will be completely familiar." [67]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ "Only one surviving document - an Aramaic papyrus at the Brooklyn museum - gives any indication that the transferral of power was accompanied by violence anywhere in the country. The text describes an open battle between the founder of the Twenty-ninth Dynasty and his predecessor: Nepherites is supposed to have taken Amyrtaeus prisoner and then to have executed him at Memphis before establishing his native city as the new capital. [Mendes]" [68] "On the contrary, the assertion of continuity with older tradition is combined with the exercise of considerable invention and originality both in materials and iconography, producing some of the most remarkable sculpture in the entire pharaonic corpus. For other spheres of cultural activity there is sometimes an unnerving lacuna in extant material—there are, for example, no literary texts securely dated to this period. For all that, close analysis of such evidence as we do possess confirms that Egyptian society and civilization as a whole were characterized by the same traits as the visual arts. We routinely encounter features with which the student of earlier periods will be completely familiar." [69] "Agut-Labordere also suggests that hints of similar measures by Teos' predecessor, Nectanebo I, are visible in Chapter 10 of the Demotic Chronicle."[70]
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥ "On the contrary, the assertion of continuity with older tradition is combined with the exercise of considerable invention and originality both in materials and iconography, producing some of the most remarkable sculpture in the entire pharaonic corpus. For other spheres of cultural activity there is sometimes an unnerving lacuna in extant material—there are, for example, no literary texts securely dated to this period. For all that, close analysis of such evidence as we do possess confirms that Egyptian society and civilization as a whole were characterized by the same traits as the visual arts. We routinely encounter features with which the student of earlier periods will be completely familiar." [71]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred present ♥ "On the contrary, the assertion of continuity with older tradition is combined with the exercise of considerable invention and originality both in materials and iconography, producing some of the most remarkable sculpture in the entire pharaonic corpus. For other spheres of cultural activity there is sometimes an unnerving lacuna in extant material—there are, for example, no literary texts securely dated to this period. For all that, close analysis of such evidence as we do possess confirms that Egyptian society and civilization as a whole were characterized by the same traits as the visual arts. We routinely encounter features with which the student of earlier periods will be completely familiar." [72]
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred present ♥ "On the contrary, the assertion of continuity with older tradition is combined with the exercise of considerable invention and originality both in materials and iconography, producing some of the most remarkable sculpture in the entire pharaonic corpus. For other spheres of cultural activity there is sometimes an unnerving lacuna in extant material—there are, for example, no literary texts securely dated to this period. For all that, close analysis of such evidence as we do possess confirms that Egyptian society and civilization as a whole were characterized by the same traits as the visual arts. We routinely encounter features with which the student of earlier periods will be completely familiar." [73]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ "Demotic ostraca discovered in a temple attest to the villages’ existence from the late 26th to early 30th dynasties. The texts - still unpublished - often record transactions with water. Farmers bought the right to have water flow into their fields for a number of days and promised part of their yields in return. The contracts are dated in the traditional Egyptian way according to the regnal years of kings. They include both Persians and those who ruled when Egypt was independent from the empire. The changes in government did not affect how the records were kept." [74] Yields used to buy the right to have access to water.
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥ this is the code for the expert-checked Saite Period
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥ "Yet there is evidence that the empire confiscated temple property, and over time this policy may have become harsher in reaction to Egyptian rebellions. Thus, the report of Greek historians that Artaxerxes III Ochus plundered temples and carried off vast quantities of gold and silver upon recapturing the country after its spell of independence in 343, is likely to be true." [75] The fact that the Persians confiscated gold and silver indicates that they had been hoarded for their economic value when Egypt was independent.
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred present ♥ Saite Period was inferred absent but Achaemenids had a single currency monetary system and daric coins may have circulated at least for a while after the Persians had left.
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ "donations to temples were suppressed unless the priests paid a tax in silver, and orders were issued to reduce the expenses of the temples by 90 percent and to loan the savings to the king who needed it to mint coins for his mercenaries."[76] Teos from 360 BCE?
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred present ♥ Did the Achaemenids set up postal stations within Egypt or were they just to Egypt? Postal stations were used by the Ptolemies. Coding inferred present on the basis that Cyrene region to the Egyptian Delta may have been bridged by Achaemenid era postal station network and the subsequent dynasties could have maintained this network, even without further expansion of the network in this period.
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ bronze is made with copper. Greek mercenaries possessed "elaborate bronze armor" [77]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Greek mercenaries possessed "elaborate bronze armor" [78]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ "iron armor and weapons of a non-Egyptian type found in Egypt attest the work of Greek blacksmiths specialized in making and fixing weapons in the military settlements of Daphnae and Migdol.[79]
♠ Steel ♣ inferred absent ♥ No reference found to steel armour or weapons.

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ [80]. refers to Greek mercenaries, who were likely used similar to Saite period and contemporary Greeks. [81]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ "The sling is shown being used in assault on towns in the early Middle Kingdom tombs at Beni Hasan. Examples found in the tomb of Tutankhamun were made of linen. Despite its rare appearance in battle scenes, it was probably widely used. [...] A sling shot from the Ptolemaic and Roman periods could be made of lead, and carried inscribed messages for the unfortunate recipient."[82] According to one military historian, many ancient armies used slingers. Vulnerable to counter-attacks, slinger units were usually small and used at the start of the battle. Because of the training required to produce and effective slinger they were often hired mercenaries.[83]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ [84] Cretans were famous archers.[85] refers to Greek mercenaries, who were likely used similar to Saite period and contemporary Greeks. [86] "In western Asia, [the self bow] was replaced by the composite bow. In Egypt, the self-bow continued to be widely used, especially by Nubian troops."[87]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ [88] Cretans were famous archers.[89] refers to Greek mercenaries, who were likely used similar to Saite period and contemporary Greeks. [90] "In western Asia, [the self bow] was replaced by the composite bow. In Egypt, the self-bow continued to be widely used, especially by Nubian troops."[91]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ "the hand-held crossbow was invented by the Chinese, in the fifth century BC, and probably came into the Roman world in the first century AD, where it was used for hunting."[92] The crossbow also developed after the Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE.[93]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred absent ♥ Academic histories of warfare and weaponry in Egypt stop mentioning axes and maces once they reach the New Kingdom, suggesting they fell out of fashion. Preiser-Kapeller (2015) suggests next data for war clubs for an Upper Egypt NGA polity may be East Roman Empire 395-631 CE.[94]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred absent ♥ Academic histories of warfare and weaponry in Egypt stop mentioning axes and maces once they reach the New Kingdom, suggesting they fell out of fashion.
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ [95] refers to Greek mercenaries, who were likely used similar to Saite period and contemporary Greeks. [96]
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ [97] refers to Greek mercenaries, who were likely used similar to Saite period and contemporary Greeks. [98]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ [99] refers to Greek mercenaries, who were likely used similar to Saite period and contemporary Greeks. [100]
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred present from use as pack animals in warfare during Saite period [101]
♠ Horses ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent periods.
♠ Camels ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent periods.
♠ Elephants ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent periods.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ ♥
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ Used in preceding periods.
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Certainly present in Egypt probably worn by charioteers by the 18th Dynasty c1500 BCE.[102]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ refers to Greek mercenaries, who were likely used similar to Saite period and contemporary Greeks. [103]. Greek armor used by Cairan and Ionians "covered much more of the body" [104] Under Persian rule Egyptian naval forces described by Herodotus had breastplates. [105]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ refers to Greek mercenaries, who were likely used similar to Saite period and contemporary Greeks. [106]. Greek armor used by Cairan and Ionians "covered much more of the body" [107] Under Persian rule Egyptian naval forces described by Herodotus had breastplates. [108]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred absent ♥ In the New Kingdom mail coats were made out of bronze developed for charioteers. Evidence from a scene from the tomb of Kenamun. Colour of painting suggests bronze used for scales. [109] Is Hoffmeier referring to chainmail or coats with scales? Code assumes the latter. "the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base."[110]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ "the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base."[111]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Possible. Already introduced by the Assyrians.
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ According to one military historian, by 600 BCE early Greeks and Romans had introduced the bronze cast bell muscle cuirass.[112]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent periods.
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent periods.
♠ Fortified camps ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent periods.
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Jill Levine; Edward Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ inferred present ♥ "the support of prominent families of the kingdom was crucial for the stability of the monarchy."[113]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Edward Turner; Enrico Cioni ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ "in the Late Period ... the personal political initiative of the king was minimized in the monumental record ... and his role as an 'instrument' of the gods emphasized (Otto 1954); but the king remained potentially and usually in reality the most powerful figure in government."[114] "The seat of Horus as the living king continues to be the 'h in Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom and Late Period texts as suggested by recurring expressions referring to Horus as 'Lord of the 'h' (nb 'h) or as being 'in his 'h' (m 'h.f). ... The offices of the king as Horus-sovereign were partly divine and had to be exercised by cult performance."[115]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ an instrument of the gods is not a god? on the other hand, the king was the living Horus. "Repeated favors for Horus in the 'h (for what) I had done"(22nd-23rd Dynasty).[116] "[Amun] brought me in the 'h in his private places" (Osorkon II - Harsiese A).[117] "Favorite of Horus Lord of his 'h" (Osorkon II - Takelot II)[118] New Kingdom (suggesting absent): "One late Ramesside text asks whose master the king is, implying that he is no one's. Another presents him expressly as a man in contrast to the god Amun, something that would probably have been unthinkable a couple of centuries earlier."[119] However, "his central position in temple iconography remained largely unchanged."[120] Late Period (suggesting present?): "The seat of Horus as the living king continues to be the 'h in Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom and Late Period texts as suggested by recurring expressions referring to Horus as 'Lord of the 'h' (nb 'h) or as being 'in his 'h' (m 'h.f). ... The offices of the king as Horus-sovereign were partly divine and had to be exercised by cult performance."[121] Late Period (suggesting absent): "in the Late Period ... the personal political initiative of the king was minimized in the monumental record ... and his role as an 'instrument' of the gods emphasized (Otto 1954); but the king remained potentially and usually in reality the most powerful figure in government."[122]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ Ideology/cosmology holds all humans as equal, though in practice acknowledged and accepted that there were stark social/political/economic differences [123]. "Through both their ritual and social activity men had a vital role to play in ensuring the continuity and survival of an ideal universal order - ma'at ... - established by a creator god aeons earlier. Conformity to earlier patterns of political and religious life was therefore encouraged, and innovations - if they were successful - had to adapt but not radically alter the supernaturally sanctioned formal structure."[124] "In Egyptian mythology, good and evil are respectively identified with cosmic order (Maat) and chaos (Isfet) (Assmann 1990) ... humanity's role was limited to the dutiful maintaining of maat on earth."[125] Since the cosmic order includes the social order then the good is identified with not only the status quo - which in New Kingdom Egypt was highly unequal - but also the maintaining of this order.

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ [126] "Through both their ritual and social activity men had a vital role to play in ensuring the continuity and survival of an ideal universal order - ma'at ... - established by a creator god aeons earlier. Conformity to earlier patterns of political and religious life was therefore encouraged, and innovations - if they were successful - had to adapt but not radically alter the supernaturally sanctioned formal structure."[127] "In Egyptian mythology, good and evil are respectively identified with cosmic order (Maat) and chaos (Isfet) (Assmann 1990) ... humanity's role was limited to the dutiful maintaining of maat on earth."[128] Since the cosmic order includes the social order then the good is identified with not only the status quo - which in New Kingdom Egypt was highly unequal - but also the maintaining of this order.
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred present ♥ inferred continuity with traditional ideology; no strict inherited elite status, but elites / commoners idealogical equivalent [129]"Through both their ritual and social activity men had a vital role to play in ensuring the continuity and survival of an ideal universal order - ma'at ... - established by a creator god aeons earlier. Conformity to earlier patterns of political and religious life was therefore encouraged, and innovations - if they were successful - had to adapt but not radically alter the supernaturally sanctioned formal structure."[130] "In Egyptian mythology, good and evil are respectively identified with cosmic order (Maat) and chaos (Isfet) (Assmann 1990) ... humanity's role was limited to the dutiful maintaining of maat on earth."[131] Since the cosmic order includes the social order then the good is identified with not only the status quo - which in New Kingdom Egypt was highly unequal - but also the maintaining of this order.

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from lack of evidence for changes in prevailing ideology during this period. [132] “Festivals were community affairs, a time for the residents of a village or town to abandon their daily tasks and come together in celebration.” [133] "instructions of Amenemope give positive images of attitudes toward human limits. It also teaches that care for the old, sick, and malformed is a moral duty, because 'Man is clay and straw, the God is his builder. The Wise Man should respect people affected by reversal of fortune' [Simpson, 1973]."[134] perhaps in marriage: "In literary texts, extramarital liaisons were punishable by death (Eyre 1984: 97; Johnson 2003: 150 - 151). In non-literary texts from Deir el-Medina dating to the New Kingdom, erring individuals of both sexes face less dramatic repercussions (Toivari-Viitala 2001: 153 - 157; see also Galpaz-Feller 2004; Lorton 1977: 14 - 15, 38 - 39)."[135] "Ancient Egyptian ethical thought and action revolved around the notion of maat. Although there are no traces of a standard moral code surviving from ancient Egypt, moral principles are often reflected in the literature - especially works of wisdom literature, funerary books and songs, tomb biographies, and literary narratives. ... Through the study of these sources one can observe the occurrence of a major change in ancient Egyptian ethical thought during the New Kingdom, when piety and religiosity became significant criteria for the judgment of the individual."[136] "The gods explicitly sanctioned attention to the problems of the less fortunate, and government was aware of the importance of both the appearance and reality of correct behaviour. ... Periodic reforms of abuses are well documented, and officials' biographies frequently refer to their aid to the disadvantaged."[137] "The existence of institutional doctors and of a certain paternalism, shown by employers, resulting from their fear of offending the Gods and their beliefs in an after-life, played a role in softening the bleak scene of the Egyptian world of work."[138]

♠ production of public goods ♣inferred present ♥ Texts from later periods make clear elites and ruler provided public goods (famine relief water works); inferred ideology existed from early on [139] Declaration of virtues for Intef "herald and governor under Thutmose III (Urk IV, 964-975)" that might suggest "both a reaffirmation of moral values held in the Middle Kingdom and a clear expansion of moral ideals in the 18th Dynasty" (includes): free of evil; without falsehood; hearer of his petition; not (neglectful) concerning Maat; turning his back to the liar; free from partiality; vindicating the just; punishing the guilty for his guilt; servant of the needy; father of the poor; guide of the orphan; mother of the timid; shelter for the battered; guardian of the sick; husband of the widow; refuge for the orphan. [140]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [141] [142] [143]

References

  1. (Lloyd 2000, 377)
  2. (Ruzicka 2012) Ruzicka, Stephen. 2012. Trouble in the West: Egypt and the Persian Empire, 525-332 BCE. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  3. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 17)
  4. (Ruzicka 2012) Ruzicka, Stephen. 2012. Trouble in the West: Egypt and the Persian Empire, 525-332 BCE. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  5. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 17)
  6. (Grimal 1994, 372)
  7. (Grimal 1994, 372)
  8. (Mumford 2010, 332)
  9. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 17) Christelle Fischer-Bovet. 2014. Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  10. (Lloyd 2000, 377) Alan B. Lloyd. 2000. 'The Late Period (664-332 BC)', in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 364-87. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  11. (Lichtheim [1980] 2006, ix-x) Miriam Lichtheim. [1980] 2006. Ancient Egyptian Literature, Volume III: The Late Period. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  12. (Perdu 2010, 152-53) Olivier Perdu. 2010. 'Saites and Persians (664‒332)', in A Companion to Ancient Egypt, Volume 1, edited by Alan B. Lloyd, 140-58. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
  13. (Grimal 1994, 371) N. Grimal. 1994. A History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  14. (Grimal 1994, 372) N. Grimal. 1994. A History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  15. (Grimal 1994, 372) N. Grimal. 1994. A History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  16. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 17) Christelle Fischer-Bovet. 2014. Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  17. (Lloyd 2000, 377) Alan B. Lloyd. 2000. 'The Late Period (664-332 BC)', in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 364-87. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  18. (Perdu 2010, 152) Olivier Perdu. 2010. 'Saites and Persians (664‒332)', in A Companion to Ancient Egypt, Volume 1, edited by Alan B. Lloyd, 140-58. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
  19. (Perdu 2010, 156) Olivier Perdu. 2010. 'Saites and Persians (664‒332)', in A Companion to Ancient Egypt, Volume 1, edited by Alan B. Lloyd, 140-58. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
  20. (Ruzicka 2012) Stephen Ruzicka. 2012. Trouble in the West: Egypt and the Persian Empire, 525-332 BCE. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  21. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 16-17) Christelle Fischer-Bovet. 2014. Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  22. (Allam 1990, 2) S. Allam. 1990. 'Women as Holders of Rights in Ancient Egypt (During the Late Period)'. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 33 (1): 1-34.
  23. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 25) Christelle Fischer-Bovet. 2014. Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  24. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 25) Christelle Fischer-Bovet. 2014. Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  25. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 24) Christelle Fischer-Bovet. 2014. Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  26. (Kaplan 2003) Philip Kaplan. 2003. 'Cross-Cultural Contacts among Mercenary Communities in Saite and Persian Egypt'. Mediterranean Historical Review 18 (1): 1-31.
  27. (Van de Mieroop 2011, 307) Marc Van De Mieroop. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
  28. (Van de Mieroop 2011, 307) Marc Van De Mieroop. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
  29. (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 227) Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. London: Allen Lane.
  30. geacron.com
  31. (Grimal 1994, 371)
  32. (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 227) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd.
  33. (Manning 2015, Personal Communication)
  34. (Mumford 2010, 331)
  35. (Mumford 2010, 331)
  36. (Mumford 2010, 334)
  37. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 17)
  38. (Agut-Labordere 2013, 1007)
  39. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 17)
  40. (Spencer 2010, 268)
  41. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 17)
  42. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 26)
  43. (Lloyd 2000, 380)
  44. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 134)
  45. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 134)
  46. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 134)
  47. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 134)
  48. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 144)
  49. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 134)
  50. (Lloyd 2000, 380)
  51. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 25)
  52. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 26)
  53. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 24)
  54. (Lloyd 2000, 377)
  55. (Lloyd 2000, 377)
  56. (Perdu 2010, 156)
  57. (Manning 2015, Personal Communication)
  58. (Haring 2010, 234-235)
  59. (Manning 2015, Personal Communication)
  60. (Allam 1990, 33) Allam, S. 1990. Women as Holders of Rights in Ancient Egypt (During the Late Period). Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. Vol. 33, No. 1 (1990), pp. 1-34. BRILL
  61. (Van de Mieroop 2011, 307)
  62. (Mumford 2010, 332)
  63. (Mumford 2010, 347)
  64. (Van de Mieroop 2011, 307)
  65. (Lloyd 2000, 383)
  66. (Lloyd 2000, 383)
  67. (Lloyd 2000, 383)
  68. (Grimal 1994, 372)
  69. (Lloyd 2000, 383)
  70. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 25)
  71. (Lloyd 2000, 383)
  72. (Lloyd 2000, 383)
  73. (Lloyd 2000, 383)
  74. (Van de Mieroop 2011, 307)
  75. (Van de Mieroop 2011, 308)
  76. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 25)
  77. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 16)
  78. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 16)
  79. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 20-21)
  80. Everson, T. 2004. Warfare in Ancient Greece: Arms and Armour from the Heroes of Homer to Alexander the Great, Sutton.
  81. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 17) Christelle Fischer-Bovet. 2014. Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  82. (Morkot 2010: 222) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/AHFJE5Z2.
  83. (Gabriel 2002, 31) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  84. Everson, T. 2004. Warfare in Ancient Greece: Arms and Armour from the Heroes of Homer to Alexander the Great, Sutton.
  85. Fischer-Bovet. 2014, Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt, Cambridge 135-138.
  86. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 17) Christelle Fischer-Bovet. 2014. Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  87. (Morkot 2010: 50) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/AHFJE5Z2.
  88. Everson, T. 2004. Warfare in Ancient Greece: Arms and Armour from the Heroes of Homer to Alexander the Great, Sutton.
  89. Fischer-Bovet. 2014, Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt, Cambridge 135-138.
  90. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 17) Christelle Fischer-Bovet. 2014. Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  91. (Morkot 2010: 50) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/AHFJE5Z2.
  92. (Nicholson 2004, 99) Helen Nicholson. 2004. Medieval Warfare: Theory and Practice of War in Europe, 300-1500. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.
  93. (Keyser and Irby-Massie 2006, 260) Paul T Keyser. Georgia Irby-Massie. Science, Medicine, And Technology. Glenn R Bugh. ed. 2006. The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  94. (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)
  95. Everson, T. 2004. Warfare in Ancient Greece: Arms and Armour from the Heroes of Homer to Alexander the Great, Sutton.
  96. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 17) Christelle Fischer-Bovet. 2014. Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  97. Everson, T. 2004. Warfare in Ancient Greece: Arms and Armour from the Heroes of Homer to Alexander the Great, Sutton.
  98. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 17) Christelle Fischer-Bovet. 2014. Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  99. Everson, T. 2004. Warfare in Ancient Greece: Arms and Armour from the Heroes of Homer to Alexander the Great, Sutton.
  100. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 17) Christelle Fischer-Bovet. 2014. Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  101. (Manning 2015, Personal Communication)
  102. (Hoffmeier 2001) J K Hoffmeier in D B Redford. ed. 2001. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  103. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 17) Christelle Fischer-Bovet. 2014. Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  104. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 20)
  105. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 39)
  106. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 17) Christelle Fischer-Bovet. 2014. Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  107. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 20)
  108. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 39)
  109. (Hoffmeier 2001)
  110. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 135-138) Fischer-Bovet (2014) Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge University Press
  111. (Fischer-Bovet 2014, 135-138) Fischer-Bovet (2014) Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Cambridge University Press
  112. (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  113. (Garcia 2013, 1039) Garcia, Juan Carlos Moreno "The 'Other' Administration: Patronage, Factions, and Informal Networks of Power in Ancient Egypt" in Garcia, Juan Carlos Moreno ed. 2013. Ancient Egyptian Administration. BRILL.
  114. (O'Connor 1983, 190) O'Connor, David. "New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period 1552-664 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O'Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  115. (Pagliari 2012, 235) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.
  116. (Pagliari 2012, 1005) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.
  117. (Pagliari 2012, 1005) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.
  118. (Pagliari 2012, 1013) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.
  119. (Baines 1991, 198) Baines, John in Shafer, Byron Esely. Baines, John. Lesko, Leonard H. Silverman, David P. 1991. Religion in Ancient Egypt: Gods, Myths, and Personal Practice. Cornell University Press.
  120. (Baines 1991, 198) Baines, John in Shafer, Byron Esely. Baines, John. Lesko, Leonard H. Silverman, David P. 1991. Religion in Ancient Egypt: Gods, Myths, and Personal Practice. Cornell University Press.
  121. (Pagliari 2012, 235) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.
  122. (O'Connor 1983, 190) O'Connor, David. "New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period 1552-664 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O'Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  123. (John Baines, Oxford workshop January 2017)
  124. (O'Connor 1983, 189) O'Connor, David. "New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period 1552-664 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O'Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  125. (Enmarch 2016) Enmarch, Roland. 2016. Theodicy. https://uee.cdh.ucla.edu/articles/theodicy/?x=49&y=9
  126. (John Baines, Oxford workshop January 2017)
  127. (O'Connor 1983, 189) O'Connor, David. "New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period 1552-664 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O'Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  128. (Enmarch 2016) Enmarch, Roland. 2016. Theodicy. https://uee.cdh.ucla.edu/articles/theodicy/?x=49&y=9
  129. (John Baines, Oxford workshop January 2017)
  130. (O'Connor 1983, 189) O'Connor, David. "New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period 1552-664 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O'Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  131. (Enmarch 2016) Enmarch, Roland. 2016. Theodicy. https://uee.cdh.ucla.edu/articles/theodicy/?x=49&y=9
  132. (John Baines, Oxford workshop January 2017)
  133. Teeter, E. 2011. ‘’Religion and Ritual in Ancient Egypt’’ p. 56. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  134. (Kozma 2006) Kozma, Chahira. February 16 2006. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A. Volume 140A. Issue 4. 302-311.
  135. (Toivari-Viitala 2016) Toivari-Viitala, Jaana. 2016. Marriage and Divorce. https://uee.cdh.ucla.edu/articles/marriage_and_divorce/?x=36&y=15
  136. (Lazaridis 2016) Lazaridis, Nikolaos. 2016. Ethics. https://uee.cdh.ucla.edu/articles/ethics/?x=84&y=10
  137. (O'Connor 1983, 194) O'Connor, David. "New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period 1552-664 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O'Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  138. Ziskind, Bernard. Halioua. Occupational medicine in ancient Egypt. 2007. Medical Hypotheses. Volume 69. Issue 4. pp 942-945. Elsevier.
  139. (John Baines, Oxford workshop January 2017)
  140. (Karenga 2004, 85-86) Karenga, Maulana. 2004. Maat, the Moral Ideal in Ancient Egypt: A Study in Classical African Ethics. Psychology Press.
  141. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  142. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  143. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html

Davoli, P. 2010. Settlements - Distribution, Structure, Architecture: Graeco-Roman. In A. B. Lloyd (ed.) A Companion to Ancient Egypt, pp. 350-369. Malden, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Grimal, N. 1994. A History of Ancient Egypt. Malden, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Haring, B. 2010. Administration and Law: Pharaonic. In A. B. Lloyd (ed.) A Companion to Ancient Egypt, pp. 218-236. Malden, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Lloyd, A. B. 2000. The Late Period (664-332 BC). In Shaw, I. (ed.) The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, pp. 364-387. Oxford: OUP.

Manning, JG. 2003. Land and Power in Ptolemaic Egypt: The Structure of Land Tenure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mumford, G. D. 2010. Settlements - Distribution, Structure, Architecture: Pharaonic. In A. B. Lloyd (ed.) A Companion to Ancient Egypt, pp. 326-349. Malden, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Monson, Andrew. 1977. From the Ptolemies to the Romans: Political and Economic Change in Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Perdu, O. 2010. Saites and Persians (664-332). In A. B. Lloyd (ed.) A Companion to Ancient Egypt, pp. 140-158. Malden, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Spencer, N. 2014. Priests and Temples: Pharaonic. In A. B. Lloyd (ed.) A Companion to Ancient Egypt, pp. 255-273. Malden, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Taylor, John. 2003. The Third Intermediate Period (1069-664 BC). In The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Van de Mieroop, M. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.