EgBadar

From Seshat Data Browser
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Emilia Tomicka; Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

♠ Original name ♣ Badarian ♥ "The work by Brunton and Caton-Thompson (1928) in the Badari district near Assyut revealed yet another unit older than the Amratian - the Badarian." [1]

♠ Alternative names ♣ Badari-Kultur; Badari culture ♥ Badari-Kultur (German), Badari culture (French)

♠ Peak Date ♣ 4400-4000 BCE ♥ Date indicated by Ian. Shown as the most clear evidence of Badarian culture. He also points to the ongoing debate around the Badarian chronology[2]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 4400-3800 BCE ♥


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ suspected unknown ♥ There is no evidence for centralization, political authority or government.


♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ suspected unknown ♥ There is no evidence for supra-polity relations in the Badari culture.


Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥ The relation with earlier culture, called the Tasian, is unclear[3]. However, there is some evidence the Naqada I period seems to be represented in the Badari region[4]. Also some artifacts have been found that are proof of trade exchange with e.g. Palestine, Red Sea, Syria[5]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Naqada I ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.


♠ Capital ♣ ♥ There are no capital in Neolitchic, semi-nomadic cultures like Badari.


♠ Language ♣ suspected unknown ♥ There is no data about language used by Badarian culture, especially because a writing system was yet to be invented.

General Description

The Badarian, a Neolithic archaeological culture located in Upper Egypt and dating from c. 4400 to 3300 BCE, was first described in 1928 by archaeologists Guy Brunton and Gertrude Caton-Thompson, who excavated in the Badari district near Assyut.[6] Its relationship to an earlier culture, called the Tasian, is unclear,[7] but there is some evidence to link it to the later Naqada I period in Upper Egypt.[8] Little is known of the everyday lives of the people who occupied the Badarian sites: our information comes mainly from the numerous grave sites in the region around Assyut.

Population and political organization

Research on Badarian sites has yielded a total of about 600 graves and 40 poorly documented settlements.[9] The culture was first identified in the el-Badari region, near the modern city of Sohag, but several small sites near the villages of Qau el-Kebir, Hammamiya, Mostagedda, and Matmar are also categorized as Badarian.[10] Characteristic Badarian material culture has also been discovered much further south at Mahgar Dendera, Armant, Elkab, and Hierakonpolis, as well as to the east of the Nile in the Wadi Hammamat.[11]
The archaeology of the period has inevitably been affected by the flooding of the Nile over the millennia: any larger, more permanent settlements were likely situated close to the great river and subsequently washed away or covered with alluvium.[12] Surviving remains come from raised desert spurs and include 'huts and windbreaks associated with hearths and large, well-shaped granary pits or silos'.[13] A Badarian settlement at Deir Tasa covered an area of about 5000 square metres.[14] At the Seshat standard of 50-200 inhabitants per hectare, this gives us an estimated population between the range of 25 and 100 inhabitants.
Evidence from Badarian settlements shows that the people who occupied these sites were primarily engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry,[15] but we know trade also occurred. Badarians imported raw materials like wood, turquoise, shells and ivory and exchanged goods with groups from as far away as Palestine, the Red Sea and Syria.[16] Model boats found at the site of Merimda to the north 'suggest that boats and canoes were already in use [in Egypt] before 4500 B.C.'[17]
Very little can be concluded about Badarian political and social structure, but analysis of grave goods shows that there was an unequal distribution of wealth, and that the wealthier graves tended to be kept separate within the cemeteries.[18] However, no monumental remains have been found so it is likely that higher-status members of society did not command a significant labour force.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Emilia Tomicka; Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ Badarian culture was first identified in the el-Badari region, near Sohag. But also, there was a large number of small sites near the villages of Qau el-Kebir, Hammamiya, Mostagedda, and Matmar[19]. However, characteristic Badarian findings have also been located much further South, at Mahgar Dendera, Armant, Elkab, and Hierakonpolis, and also to the East, in the Wadi Hammamat[20]

Research on Badarian sites yielded a total of about 600 graves and forty poorly documented settlements. [21] Were these settlements all one polity? Possibly. Analysis of Badarian grave goods demonstrates an unequal distribution of wealth and the wealthier graves tend to be separated in one part of the cemetery. This clearly indicates social stratification. [22]

♠ Polity Population ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Research on Badarian sites yielded a total of about 600 graves and forty poorly documented settlements [23]

Were these settlements all one polity? Possibly. Analysis of Badarian grave goods demonstrates an unequal distribution of wealth and the wealthier graves tend to be separated in one part of the cemetery. This clearly indicates social stratification. [24]

Evidence from Badarian settlements shows that the economy of the culture was primarily based on agriculture and husbandry. [25] Extensive agriculture present.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [25-100] ♥ "Excavations at the Badarian site of Deir Tasa revealed a settlement covering an area of about 5000 m (Gabra, 1930)". [26] At 50-200 inhabitants per ha this gives us an estimated population between the range of 25 and 100 inhabitants.


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [1-2] ♥ The larger and more permanent settlements were probably close to the floodplain (Mahgar Dendera), but the possible remains of those would have been washed away by the Nile a long time ago already.[27]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ [1-2] ♥ Analysis of Badarian grave goods demonstrates an unequal distribution of wealth and the wealthier graves tend to be separated in one part of the cemetery. This clearly indicates social stratification. [28]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 1 ♥


♠ Military levels ♣ 1 ♥


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred absent ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred absent ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Courts ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ markets ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ "The shelters consisted of huts and windbreaks associated with hearths and large, well-shaped granary pits or silos up to about 2.7 m in diameter and up to about 3 m in depth." [29]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Transport by boat was very important in the Badarian culture (e.g. for trade or fishing), therefore the presence of ports and canals cannot be completely excluded. [30]
♠ Ports ♣ inferred present ♥ Transportation by boats was very important in the Badarian culture, and there is also evidence for trade exchange[31] Therefore, ports and canals cannot be completely excluded. Information from the Badarian remains shows that they imported raw materials like wood, turquoise, shells and ivory. Additionally, some artifacts have been found that are proof of trade exchange with e.g. Palestine, Red Sea, Syria.


Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ The earliest art productions are rock-drawings executed on the cliffs bordering the Nile in Upper Egypt. The oldest consist principally of geometric designs such as concentric circles, half-circles, and net-patterns, or abstract figures[32].
♠ Written records ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Script ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ inferred absent ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ History ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred absent ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥ Agricultural economy.
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥ In following Naqada period there were baked clay and stone tokens - cones, spheres, disks, cylinders, tetrahedrons etc.; impressed tablets.[33]
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Emilia Tomicka; Edward A L Turner; Enrico Cioni ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ absent ♥ Copper metallurgy from 2500 BCE. [34]
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ bronze includes copper- copper metallurgy from 2500 BCE. [35]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ not in use during this time period
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ not in use during this time period

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from absence of javelins in subsequent polities in Upper Egypt
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ [absent; present] ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ [36] Probably present - arrowheads finds [37]. Arrowheads represent weapon finds as often as spearheads[38]. "The bow was probably between 6,000 and 10,000 years old by the dawn of the Bronze Age".[39]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE."[40] "The composite bows spread into Palestine around 1800 BCE and were introduced into Egypt by the Hyksos in 1700 BCE."[41]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ not yet invented
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ not yet invented
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ not yet invented
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ not yet invented
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ not yet invented

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Mace was the dominant weapon of war between 4000-2500 BCE in Sumer and until the Hyksos invasions (1700 BCE) in Egypt.[42]
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Axe head found.[43]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Spears were the most common[44].
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred absent ♥ There is some information about flint knives, but at the same time it is not included in weapons group.[45]. However, it seems to be hasty, to completely exclude the knives/daggers as a weapon.
♠ Swords ♣ inferred absent ♥ "All armies after the seventeenth century B.C.E. carried the sword, but in none was it a major weapon of close combat; rather, it was used when the soldier's primary weapons, the spear and axe, were lost or broken."[46]
♠ Spears ♣ ♥
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No data.
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass 'in more than one place' but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan.[47]
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ horses non-native to Egypt. Introduced c1700 BCE. [48]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ camels not considered native to Egypt, likely introduced by Persians in 525 BCE
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ elephants not used until Kushite military [49]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ absent ♥ No finds interpreted as armor or protection in fight.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ absent ♥ No finds interpreted as armor or protection in fight.
♠ Shields ♣ absent ♥ No finds interpreted as armor or protection in fight.
♠ Helmets ♣ absent ♥ In Egyptian warfare 3000-1700 BCE the "only personal protection was the shield".[50] Not until the 18th Dynasty c1500 BCE.[51] Earliest known helmet dates to 2500 BCE in Sumer. After this time use of helmets became widespread.[52]
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥ In Egyptian warfare 3000-1700 BCE the "only personal protection was the shield".[53]
♠ Limb protection ♣ absent ♥ In Egyptian warfare 3000-1700 BCE the "only personal protection was the shield".[54]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples.[55]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available. "By 2100 BCE the victory stele of Naram Sin appears to show plate armor, and it is likely that plate armor had been in wide use for a few hundred years. Plate armor was constructed of thin bronze plates sewn to a leather shirt or jerkin."[56] Coding this as scale armor.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available. Lamellar armour introduced by the Assyrians (9th century BCE?): "a shirt constructed of laminated layers of leather sewn or glued together. To the outer surface of this coat were attached fitted iron plates, each plate joined to the next at the edge with no overlap and held in place by stitching or gluing."[57]
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available. "By 2100 BCE the victory stele of Naram Sin appears to show plate armor, and it is likely that plate armor had been in wide use for a few hundred years. Plate armor was constructed of thin bronze plates sewn to a leather shirt or jerkin."[58]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ "Sophisticated, elaborate boats were evidently used by 3600 B.C. (Late Nagada), but model boats from Merimda suggest that boats and canoes were already in use before 4500 B.C." [59]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ Badarian culture knew water transport and often use it[60], but warfare not at level for specialized military vessels

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ absent ♥ Completely no data about any fortifications.
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ absent ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ absent ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moat ♣ absent ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned for this period in Shaw's (1991, 15-24) discussion of Egyptian fortifications.[61]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ inferred absent ♥ There was no executive body/head of state for a government to even in principle reverse its decisions or withhold cooperation, and there likely was little or no government at this time.
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ inferred absent ♥ There was no executive body/head of state for (non-religious) non-government to even in principle reverse its decisions or withhold cooperation.
♠ Impeachment ♣ inferred absent ♥ There was no executive body/head of state at this time so a formal mechanism of impeachment did not exist.

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Social stratification with the separation of burials[62] suggests that there were elites but it is not known whether their status was inherited or achieved by some means within their lifetimes.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [63] [64] [65]

References

  1. (Hassan 1988, 138)
  2. Shaw, I. 2003. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press. Pg.36.
  3. Shaw, I. 2003. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press. Pg.37.
  4. Shaw, I. 2003. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press. Pg.38.
  5. Trigger, B. G. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pg. 29.
  6. (Hassan 1988, 138) F. A. Hassan. 1988. 'The Predynastic of Egypt'. Journal of World Prehistory 2 (2): 135-85.
  7. (Hendrickx and Vermeersch 2000, 36-40) Stan Hendrickx and Pierre Vermeersch. 2000. 'Prehistory: From the Palaeolithic to the Badarian Culture', in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 16-40. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  8. (Hendrickx and Vermeersch 2000, 36-40) Stan Hendrickx and Pierre Vermeersch. 2000. 'Prehistory: From the Palaeolithic to the Badarian Culture', in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 16-40. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  9. (Hendrickx and Vermeersch 2000, 36-40) Stan Hendrickx and Pierre Vermeersch. 2000. 'Prehistory: From the Palaeolithic to the Badarian Culture', in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 16-40. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  10. (Hendrickx and Vermeersch 2000, 36-40) Stan Hendrickx and Pierre Vermeersch. 2000. 'Prehistory: From the Palaeolithic to the Badarian Culture', in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 16-40. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  11. (Hendrickx and Vermeersch 2000, 36-40) Stan Hendrickx and Pierre Vermeersch. 2000. 'Prehistory: From the Palaeolithic to the Badarian Culture', in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 16-40. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  12. (Hendrickx and Vermeersch 2000, 36-40) Stan Hendrickx and Pierre Vermeersch. 2000. 'Prehistory: From the Palaeolithic to the Badarian Culture', in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 16-40. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  13. (Hassan 1988, 153) F. A. Hassan. 1988. 'The Predynastic of Egypt'. Journal of World Prehistory 2 (2): 135-85.
  14. (Hassan 1988, 153) F. A. Hassan. 1988. 'The Predynastic of Egypt'. Journal of World Prehistory 2 (2): 135-85.
  15. (Hendrickx and Vermeersch 2000, 36-40) Stan Hendrickx and Pierre Vermeersch. 2000. 'Prehistory: From the Palaeolithic to the Badarian Culture', in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 16-40. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  16. (Trigger 1983, 29) Bruce G. Trigger. 1983. 'The Rise of Egyptian Civilization', in Ancient Egypt: A Social History edited by Bruce G. Trigger, Barry J. Kemp, David O'Connor and Alan B Lloyd, 1-70. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  17. (Hassan 1988, 157) F. A. Hassan. 1988. 'The Predynastic of Egypt'. Journal of World Prehistory 2 (2): 135-85.
  18. (Hendrickx and Vermeersch 2000, 36-40) Stan Hendrickx and Pierre Vermeersch. 2000. 'Prehistory: From the Palaeolithic to the Badarian Culture', in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 16-40. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  19. Shaw, I. 2003. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press. Pg.36.
  20. Shaw, I. 2003. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press. Pg. 39.
  21. Shaw, I. 2003. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press. Pg. 36.
  22. Shaw, I. 2003. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press. Pg.37.
  23. Shaw, I. 2003. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press. Pg. 36.
  24. Shaw, I. 2003. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press. Pg.37.
  25. Shaw, I. 2003. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press. Pg.39.
  26. (Hassan 1988, 153)
  27. Shaw, I. 2003. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press. Pg. 40.
  28. Shaw, I. 2003. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press. Pg.37.
  29. (Hassan 1988, 153)
  30. Trigger, B. G. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pg. 29.
  31. Trigger, B. G. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pg. 29.
  32. Stevenson Smith, W. 1981. The Art and Architecture of Ancient Egypt. New Haeven and London: Yale University Press. Pg. 25-26.
  33. Meza, A. 2012. ANCIENT EGYPT BEFORE WRITING: From Markings to Hieroglyphs. Bloomington: Xlibris Corporation. pg: 81, 82.
  34. (Adam 1981, 235) Adam, S. 1981. “The Importance of Nubia: A Link between Central Africa and the Mediterranean.” In General History of Africa II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa, edited by G. Mokhtar, II:226-44. General History of Africa. Paris: UNESCO. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/8APQDQV3.
  35. (Adam 1981, 235) Adam, S. 1981. “The Importance of Nubia: A Link between Central Africa and the Mediterranean.” In General History of Africa II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa, edited by G. Mokhtar, II:226-44. General History of Africa. Paris: UNESCO. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/8APQDQV3.
  36. (http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/badari/tools.html)
  37. Brezillon, M. 1981. Encyklopedia klutur pradziejowych. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Artystycze i Filmowe. Pg. 25.
  38. Brezillon, M. 1981. Encyklopedia klutur pradziejowych. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Artystycze i Filmowe. Pg. 25.
  39. (Gabriel 2002, 27-28) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  40. Sergey A Nefedov, RAN Institute of History and Archaeology, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. January 2018.
  41. (Roy 2015, 20) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.
  42. (Gabriel 2002, 24-25) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  43. (http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/badari/tools.html)
  44. Brezillon, M. 1981. Encyklopedia klutur pradziejowych. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Artystycze i Filmowe. Pg. 25.
  45. Brezillon, M. 1981. Encyklopedia klutur pradziejowych. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Artystycze i Filmowe. Pg. 25.
  46. (Gabriel 2002, 26-27) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  47. (Mitchell 2018, 39) Peter Mitchell 2018. The Donkey in Human History: An Archaeological Perspective. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  48. (Partridge 2010, 384)
  49. (http://www.afropedea.org/kush#TOC-Military)
  50. (Gabriel 2002, 27) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  51. (Hoffmeier 2001) J K Hoffmeier in D B Redford. ed. 2001. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  52. (Gabriel 2002, 22) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  53. (Gabriel 2002, 27) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  54. (Gabriel 2002, 27) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  55. (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  56. (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  57. (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  58. (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  59. (Hassan 1988, 157)
  60. Trigger, B. G. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pg. 29.
  61. (Shaw 1991: 15-24) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.
  62. Shaw, I. 2003. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press. Pg.37.
  63. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  64. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  65. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html


Dee, M. Wengrow, D. Shortland, A. Stevenson, A. Brock, F. Flink, L G. Ramsey, C B. 2013. An absolute chronology for early Egypt using radiocarbon dating and Bayesian statistical modelling Proc. R. Soc. A. 469. 20130395. published 4 September 2013

Hassan, F A. 1988. The Predynastic of Egypt. Journal of World Prehistory, Vol. 2, No. 2 (June 1988), pp. 135-185. Springer.

Bard, K A. Autumn 1994. The Egyptian Predynastic: A Review of the Evidence. Journal of Field Archaeology, Vol. 21, No. 3 (Autumn, 1994), pp. 265-288. Maney Publishing.

http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/badari/badarian.html