EgAyyub

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Julia Zinkina ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

♠ Original name ♣ Ayyubid Sultanate ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Ayyubid Sultanate; Ayyubid Dynasty; Saladins Empire; Sultanate of Egypt ♥ Saladin's Empire ... could not be machine read. apostrophe removed. "sultanate of Egypt" [1] - not necessarily original name. Original name unknown?

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1193 CE ♥ Saladin reunified Nur al-Din's Zangi Kingdom and seized territory from Crusader states. [2]

There was a peaceful and prosperous period under Sultan al-Kamil (1218-1240 CE). [3]

Severe famine and cannibalism in 1200 CE. [4]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1171-1250 CE ♥

Founded by Saladin, a Kurdish army officer, after his coup in 1171 CE. 1174 CE he occupied Damascus. 1183 CE was recognised as sultan. Following Saladin's death in 1193 CE there was a succession dispute, but his descendants continued to rule until 1250 CE. [5]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state: 1171-1193 CE; loose: 1193-1240 CE; unitary state: 1240-1250 CE ♥ unknown/ nominal/ loose/ confederated state /unitary state

After the death of Saladin, his sons contested control over the sultanate, but Saladin's brother al-Adil eventually established himself as Sultan in 1200. In the 1230s, the Ayyubid rulers of Syria attempted to assert their independence from Egypt and remained divided until the Sultan as-Salih Ayyub restored Ayyubid unity by taking over most of Syria, except Aleppo, by 1247.

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ nominal allegiance ♥ to Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad [6]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Abbasid Caliphate I ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate I ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Islam ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 11,000,000 ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Cairo ♥ [7][8]

♠ Language ♣ Arabic ♥ {Arabic; Kurdish; Persian} "The Ayyubids ruled a predominantly Arabic-speaking region, and many of their princes became very proficient in Arabic letters and in the religious sciences. However, we see many signs of a continuing connection with their homeland and with Iranian culture generally. Thus, it is clear that al-Malek al-ʿĀdel and his son al-Malek al-Moʿaẓẓam ʿĪsā (d. 624/1227) still spoke Kurdish or even New Persian." [9]

General Description

The Ayyubid Sultanate was established in Egypt by Saladin (Ṣalāḥ-al-dīn), a member of the Kurdish Ayyubid family who had risen to prominence in Syria in the service of a local ruling dynasty, the Zangids.[10] In 1168-69 CE, the Zangid prince Nur al-Din placed Saladin's uncle, Shirkuh, in command of a military expedition to Egypt (at that time under Fatimid rule) to take control of the country and expel the invading Frankish Crusaders.[11][12] Saladin accompanied him and was appointed vizier of Egypt by the Fatimid caliph when Shirkuh died in 1169.[13]
Saladin, however, did not have the local dynasty's interests at heart. He immediately set about undermining its power and the Ismaili (Shi'a) Islam professed by its elite in favour of a new Sunni order, in theory loyal to the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad.[14] We begin our Ayyubid Sultanate polity in 1171, when the last Fatimid caliph, Al-Adid, died and Saladin progressed from vizier to sultan in Egypt.[15] He nevertheless suppressed his ambitions until his old Zangid overlord Nur al-Din died in 1174, after which he launched a successful campaign of military expansion into the Levant and Upper Mesopotamia, as well as a brief 'holy war' on the Crusader states along the Levantine coast.[16][17]
A succession crisis followed Saladin's death in 1193, and a devastating famine in 1200 reduced parts of the population to cannibalism.[18] However, Saladin's brother, al-'Adil, declared himself sultan in 1200 and managed to impose some degree of internal stability on the empire,[19] which was split into the kingdoms of Egypt, Damascus, Aleppo and Mosul.[20] The reign of al-'Adil's son, al-Kamil, from 1218 to 1238 CE, was also a relatively stable and prosperous period in Egypt,[21] although he faced opposition from Ayyubid princes in Syria and Palestine.[22]
As-Salih Ayyub, the sultan who came to power in 1240 CE,[23] attempted to enhance his power at the expense of other Ayyubid princely lines by purchasing many more Turkish Mamluks (high-ranking slave soldiers) than his predecessors.[24] They served him as a military and governmental elite.[25][26] The Mamluks' increasingly powerful position proved to be the downfall of the Ayyubid Sultanate when, after Salih-Ayyub's death in 1249, one faction (the Bahriyya Mamluks) assassinated his son Turanshah and seized the throne.[27] The Ayyubid dynasty hung onto power in Syria until 1260, when the Mamluks defeated the invading Mongols at 'Ayn Jalut and gained popular recognition of their right to rule as 'saviours of Islam'.[28] However, we end our Ayyubid period with the assassination of Turanshah, the last Ayyubid sultan of Egypt.

Population and political organization

The Ayyubids made use of the pre-existing Fatimid bureaucratic system to administer Egypt,[29] and ruled via a Turkish and Kurdish 'military aristocracy', including some slave (Mamluk) regiments.[30][31] This was funded by the distribution of iqta's ‒ rights to tax revenue from estates of land ‒ in exchange for military and administrative services.[32] Saladin and his successors also promoted Sunni Islam in the empire by sponsoring law schools (madrasas) to serve as centres for the teaching of Sunni law.[33]
The Ayyubid Sultanate was never particularly centralized: it has been described as a 'family confederation', meaning that male members of the ruling dynasty were given principalities across the realm and allowed to govern them with substantial political autonomy.[34] Kinship ties determined relationships between different princes, so that, for example, two brothers ruling different regions would have less authority over each other than a father would over his son.[35] However, the sultan of Egypt was usually successful in asserting his suzerainty over the other kingdoms.[36]
It is difficult to find substantiated estimates for the population of the entire Ayyubid Sultanate, but there were about 2.4 million people in Egypt under Saladin.[37]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [1,500,000-1,690,000]: 1200 CE ♥ KM2. 650,000: 1171 CE; 1,500,000: 1193 CE; 1,690,000: 1210 CE; 1,670,000: 1230 CE; 1,650,000: 1250 CE [38]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [9,000,000-9,500,000]: 1200 CE ♥ People. 1200 CE. Egypt: 2.5-3. Palestine and Jordan: 0.5. Syria and Lebanon: 1.5. Yemen: 1.5. Hijaz (my estimate from "The Interior"): 1. [39] Population of Egypt 2.4 million under Saladin. [40]

Egypt: 2.4 million at the time of Saladin. [41]


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 200,000: 1200 CE ♥ People. Cairo. [150,000-200,000]: 1175 CE; 200,000: 1199 CE; [180,000-220,000]: 1250 CE [42]

EWA: Raymond 2001 can be added as ref. The range for 1175 CE should be 150,000-200,000. More accurate would be to replace the year 1200 CE by 1199 CE. And the value for 1250 CE should be around 200,000.

Damascus 90,000 1200-1250 CE.[43]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 5 ♥

EWA:

1. Cairo 150K,

2. Alexandria 35-70k or Damascus 18-50k,
3. Nomal/Provincial Capitals like Fayum City 10-20k,
4. Villages 1-2k,
5. Hamlets 0.1-0.2 (inferred)

Ref: Shatzmiller. for low estimates. Russell for the high estimates.


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 5 ♥


1. Sultan of Egypt

The Sultan of Egypt had suzerainty over the other three kingdoms, and his writ was usually obeyed. [44]
Did not establish a "central financial administration." [45] Political elite probably numbered 50 aristocrats, out of a pool of about 350 candidates. The entire elite of all ranks numbered about 20,000. [46]
After Saladin's Empire, the polity was broken up into separate Kingdoms: Egypt, Damascus, Aleppo and Mosul, under hereditary rulers of the Ayyubid dynasty. The Sultan of Egypt was usually the most powerful, and an integrating force. He ruled Egypt via an existing bureaucracy and Syria by distribution of iqta's to military officers. [47]

_Central government line_


Saladin inherited a professional bureaucracy from the Fatimids.[48]


2. Government ministries
"Imad al-Din actually described his own working relationship with Saladin: 'If he needed to draw up an official letter or divulge some confidential plan, he would sit me down and dictate the main outlines. Then I would leave and spend the night composing the letters. Early next day I would go and present them to him. If he decided to add or change something in the content he would bring my attention to the paragraph and tell me which passages. I would stay until I had put it all in order. When he had approved them in their final form, he would sign them and say "Let us send them off without delay."
3.
4.
5. police?


_Provincial line_[49]

2. Egypt (governor: Muhafas)
3. Nahi (District)
4. Village level
2. Kingdom of Damascus
Provincial administrators (governor: Muhafas) (called Amirs for Syria)
3. ruled Syria by distribution of Iqta's to military officers [50]
4. Village level
2. Kingdom of Aleppo
Provincial administrators (governor: Muhafas) (called Amirs for Syria)
3. ruled Syria by distribution of Iqta's to military officers [51]
4. Village level
2. Kingdom of Mosul
Provincial administrators (governor: Muhafas) (called Amirs for Syria)
3. ... ? ...
4. Village level


EWA: also had "5. inferred: helpers of the village chiefs." Not included due to database wide methodological question.


♠ Religious levels ♣ 4 ♥ Al-Azhar and local mosques.

Shafi'i school of religious law. The return of Egypt's rulers to Sunni orthodoxy constituted an event of considerable importance. The Ismailis, despite their long rule, had failed to impart their faith to the mass of the Egyptian population. Saladin and his successors addressed the task of making Egypt once more a center of orthodox belief (Raymond, 2000, p. 80).

EWA: Religious: Sultan, Imams [this is the shorter chain of command]

Alternative religious 4: Sultan, Chief Sufi Priest, Sheikh, minor sufi religious specialists [this is the longer chain of command and therefore the one we code]

1. Sultan

2. Chief Sufi priest
3. Sheikh
4. Minor Sufi religious specialist (local priest?)

Judiciary religious 5: Sultan, Supreme supreme judge, supreme judge, judge, clerks [we decided not to include this]

Hierarchical structure is largely irrelevant to Sunni Islam with its four Madhhabs. Estimated 3000 clergy in Saladin's Empire, 600 in Damascus. [52]


♠ Military levels ♣ [7-8] ♥

"The Ayyubid ranking system was quite a simple three tier system of amirs, amir kabirs and amir al isfahsalar. Above these field ranks were five or so specialist senior posts from garrison commander to army chief." [53]

EWA:

1. Sultan

2. Army Commander/Amir
3. Amir al-Alf (commands 1000 men)
4. Amir al-Mia (commands 100 men) or Amir tablahana (commands 40-80 men)
5. Amir al-Ishrim (commands 20 men)
6. Amir al-Ashara (commands 10 men)
7. Amir al-Hamsa (commands 5 men)
8. Individual soldier


Janib unit infantry leader

Tulb unit infantry leader

Jarida unit infantry leader

Professional haqa with an elite of slave-recruited Mamluks. Another cavalry unit called the qaraghulam. Infantry organized within the Rajjala. Military unit called a janib. The tulb was a smaller unit. A jarida was a small unit. A sariya was used in ambushes.[54]

Saladin's reformed army of 1183 CE had 111 amirs and 8640 regular cavalry. One amir for 78 troops, the basic army unit. [55]


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ Middle rank officers, Iqta holders.

"Others were rewarded with an iqta or government fief. ... Some iqtas were also put aside to maintain the fleet and its personnel. The Ayyubid ranking system was quite a simple three tier system of amirs, amir kabirs and amir al isfahsalar. Above these field ranks were five or so specialist senior posts from garrison commander to army chief."[56]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ Troops paid with cash salaries included "Kurds, mamluks and free Turkish regulars", who received the best pay, "Arabs of the Kinanah federation .. the asaqilah and other former Fatimid troops received half this; naval troops, probably one quarter; and the remaining Arab auxiliaries, one eighth."[57]

"To understand the Mamluk army one must first understand the fragmented Ayyubid armies from which it emerged. ... The ‘askar of an Ayyubid ruler, however, consisted of professional, full-time ‘askaris. The most highly regarded of them were by this time largely of mamluk origin, though their numbers could still be remarkably small." [58]

"Those Muslim archers and javelin-throwers who opened the battle of Arsuf in 1191 may have included trained professional infranty."[59]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ [60]. Saladin inherited a professional bureaucracy from the Fatimids.[61]

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥ [62]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥ [63]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ 'The dīwāns were relatively small. They do not appear to have been housed in large or permanently designated buildings; indeed the sources rarely mention government buildings.'[64] However, though bureaucratic officials perhaps lacked permanent, specialized buildings dedicated to their activities, other types of government building were probably present, such as structures associated with the mint: Ehrenkreutz argues that 'the Egyptian mint of Cairo [in the Ayyubid period] must have been a well organized, permanent establishment, and not an improvised workshop'.[65]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ "Saladin appointed a chief judge (qadi) and a chief shaykh for the Sufis."[66]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ Palace of Justice founded 1240 CE. [67]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred present ♥ specialist judges and courts might suggest a role for professional lawyers. a literate class of religious scholars already existed who could have fulfilled this role as specialist lawyer.

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Irrigation improved under al-Kamil.[68] A multitude of public works were carried out under the supervision of Saladin's eunuch Qaraqush, including a canal in Upper Egypt which is known Bahr Yusif, after Saladin's second name, even though it had originally been dug by the Pharaohs and had silted up. [69] По приказанию Салах ад-Дина всего было сооружено 40 с половиной плотин и один канал. [70]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ Well of Joseph (Bir Yusuf) was a public work. 90 meters deep. "It was divided into two parts, with the water raised by waterwheels to a cistern midway up the shaft then brought to the surface by another set of wheels. The oxen that turned the wheels stayed in the well all their lives. One entered by a stairway consisting of 300 steps, whence the name Well of the Spiral. An aqueduct was also built to carry water to the Citadel." [71] According to Ibn Jubayr: "Inside the khan is running water which flows through underground conduits to a fountain in the middle."[72]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ caravanserais [73] Bazaars. [74] - polity owned?
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Roads improved under al-Kamil. [75] Communications with al-Maqs were improved by the building of roads in 1177 CE.[76]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ Communications with al-Maqs were improved by the building of roads in 1177 and the Muski Bridge over the Khalij prior to 1188 CE. [77] A bridge was built between the Rawdah Island and Fustat around 1240 CE.[78] "Saladin put a great deal of investment into roads, bridges and fortified khans."[79]
♠ Canals ♣ inferred present ♥ did the Egyptian bureaucracy carry out maintenance on existing canals within Egypt?
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ port facilities built for Karimi merchants; one of the main ports was Alexandria [80] Saladin's wall had encompassed the al-Maqs area, which was inhabited mostly by Copts and functioned as an outer port for Cairo [81] Fustat was a port, though facilities were very primitive. [82]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ present ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Kufic writing in inscriptions phased out, replaced with Naskhi, a more rounded cursive script.[83]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ Ali al-Qifti (1172-1248 CE), biographical dictionary of Greek and Arab physicians and scientists. [84]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ [85]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Manuals for military strategy.[86]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Universal historians: the Copt al-Makin (d. 1273 CE); al-Rahib (fl. 1270 CE). [87] Historiography, e.g. of Saladin by Imad al-Din al-Isfahani (1125-1201 CE). [88]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ Damascus was the intellectual centre of the empire. [89]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ In poetry, new strophic forms muwashshah and and zaja (from Spain). List of poets: Ibn Sana al-Mulk (1150-1211 CE) who was also a judge; court poet Baha al-Din Zuhayr (1186-1258 CE); Arab mystic Umar b. al-Farid (1182-1235 CE); al-Busiri (1211-1295 CE) author of "Mantle Ode." [90]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ inferred present ♥ lead tokens possibility in Ayyubid Jerusalem although they have also been called game counters.[91]
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred absent ♥ "In pre-modern times, two distinct currencies always existed side by side, serving distinct needs within different social classes - high-value money, usually gold or pure silver coins, and the petty coinage, usually debased silver, billon, or copper coins. Geographically well-defined borders of currency zones hardly existed. If they did exist then it was for economic and fiscal reasons."[92]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ dinar.[93] Gold and silver coins used by wholesale and distance merchants and amirs who had their own iqta. [94]. Copper coin system was introduced in Aleppo 1175-6 CE. [95] Merger of currency zones occurred after 1187 CE. [96]
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ These included messenger swimmers.[97]
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥ was a postal station network maintained through the Fatimid period for the Ayyubids to inherit? did the Ayyubids develop their own network?
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from presence of bronze.
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Iron armour.[98]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Steel helmets.[99]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ "Those Muslim archers and javelin-throwers who opened the battle of Arsuf in 1191 ay have included trained professional infantry."[100]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred present from Fatimid period.
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Simple bows, such as the long Nubian bow, used at the Siege of Acre. [101]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ "A crossbow attached to the interior of a shield was one of the bizarre weapons described and illustrated in a book about military equipment written for Saladin by al-Tarusi."[102]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ Mangonels [103]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Were petraries at the Siege of Jerusalem 1187 CE tension or gravity powered? First known use of the counter-weight trebuchet was in 1165 CE by the Byzantines at the siege of Zevgminon.[104] Need to confirm with an expert source whether a scholar named Mardi bin Ali al-Tarsusi created an "instruction manual" on the counter-weight trebuchet for Saladin (Ayyubid Sultanate) in 1187 CE. It's logical copies would soon be made of this effective new technology.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ inferred absent ♥ "A major development came around 1230 when knowledge of saltpetre reached the Middle East from Central Asia. A primitive form of gunpowder was soon in use, combining ten parts saltpetre, two of charcoal and one and a half of sulphur. ... Whether or not this primitive gunpowder was used as early as 1300 to propel a projectile, or (more probably) to spray a form of grapeshot from a fixed position, remains a hotly debated question."[105]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ Mace.[106]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Infantry with long-bladed axes.[107]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Arab and Turcoman troops carried a dagger.[108]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Sword.[109]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Spear.[110]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred present from Fatimid period pikes.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Mamluk Egypt e.g. Cairo (mentioned in the context of riding so pack use must be inferred) where foreign travellers were "particularly impressed by the omnipresence of donkeys. ... Abu Sa'id is quoted as remarking that he had never before seen so many donkeys in any city he had visited."[111]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ "fully armoured" cavalry.[112]
♠ Camels ♣ present ♥ [113]
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ Infantry with "large round wooden shields".[114]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Infantry with "small leather shields".[115]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Shields.[116]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Steel helmets.[117]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ "fully armoured" cavalry.[118] Illustration of cavarlyman shows mail limb protection.[119]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Infantry with "mail hauberks of various sizes."[120]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "fully armoured" cavalry.[121]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "fully armoured" cavalry.[122]
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from necessity of Nile river travel.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ Salah al-Din devoted substantial resources to rebuilding the Egyptian Mediterranean fleet [123] Shipbuilding in Fustat. "In 1181, when there was fear that the Nile might dry up, four light boats for carrying troops to Yemen were being built in Fustat's shipyards."[124] 60 fighting galleys and 20 transport vessels by 1179 CE.[125]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ References exist for Crusaders building palisades. "The ships moored in the cove of al-Markab, and their crews showered missiles on the Ayyubid army, which was only able to continue its northward march with the protection of a veritable palisade erected along the sea-shore, as described by Imad al-Din al-Isfahani... ."[126]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ Due to lack of trees in Egypt possibly the earth rampart would be a likely defensive fortification for a smaller town.
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ Walls of Cairo citadel protected by a ditch. [127]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ Excavated new moat around Jerusalem some time after 1187 CE.[128]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ Wall around built that encompassed all of Cairo and Fustat. [129]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ inferred present ♥ "Saladin had small fortified khans built along some vital or exposed trade routes, this being the Khan al'Arus just north of Damacus."[130]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ Citadel built on the Muqattam Hills 1176 CE [131]
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Jill Levine ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Ayyubids were dynastic.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawhid and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [132]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [133]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[134]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[135]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[136]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [137] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [138]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [139]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [140] [141] [142]

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