CnYuan*

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Po-Ju Tuan; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Great Yuan ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Yuan Dynasty; Yuan; Great Yuan; Great Mongol State ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1310 CE ♥ greatest territory: west to Turpan, southwest to northern Tibet, Yunnan and Myanmar, north to North Sea, the Ob River, east to the Sea of Japan

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1271-1368 CE ♥

  1. 1206-1227 CE: Taizu (太祖 Tàizǔ)/ Borjigin Temüjin (孛兒只斤鐵木真 Bóérzhījīn Tiěmùzhēn)
  2. 1227-1229 CE: Ruizong (睿宗 Ruìzōng)/ Borjigin Tolui (孛兒只斤拖雷 BóérzhījīnTuōléi)
  3. 1229-1241 CE: Taizong (太宗 Tàizōng)/ Borjigin Tolui (孛兒只斤拖雷 BóérzhījīnTuōléi)
  4. 1246-1248 CE: Dingzong (定宗 Dìngzōng)/ Borjigin Güyük (孛兒只斤貴由 Bóérzhījīn Guìyuó)
  5. 1251-1259 CE: Xianzong (憲宗 Xiànzōng)/ Borjigin Möngke (孛兒只斤蒙哥 Bóérzhījīn Ménggē)
  6. 1260-1294 CE: Shizu (世祖 Shìzǔ)/ Borjigin Kublai (孛兒只斤忽必烈 Bóérzhījīn Hūbìliè)
  7. 1294-1307 CE: Chengzong (成宗 Chéngzōng)/ Borjigin Temür (孛兒只斤鐵木耳 Bóérzhījīn Tiěmù'ěr)
  8. 1307-1311 CE: Wuzong (武宗 Wǔzōng)/ Borjigin Qayshan (孛兒只斤海山 Bóérzhījīn Hǎishān)
  9. 1311-1320 CE: Renzong (仁宗 Rénzōng)/ Borjigin Ayurparibhadra (孛兒只斤愛育黎拔力八達 Bóérzhījīn Àiyùlíbálìbādá)
  10. 1320-1323 CE: Yingzong (英宗 Yīngzōng)/ Borjigin Suddhipala (孛兒只斤碩德八剌 Bóérzhījīn Shuòdébālá)
  11. 1328-1328 CE: Borjigin Arigaba (孛兒只斤阿速吉八 Bóérzhījīn Āsùjíbā)
  12. 1328-1329 CE: Wuzong (武宗 Wǔzōng)/ Borjigin Toq-Temür (孛兒只斤圖鐵木兒 Bóérzhījīn Tútiěmùér)
  13. 1329-1329 CE: Mingzong (明宗 Míngzōng)/ Borjigin Qoshila (孛兒只斤和世剌 Bóérzhījīn Héshìlà)
  14. 1329-1332 CE: Wuzong (武宗 Wǔzōng)/ Borjigin Toq-Temür (孛兒只斤圖鐵木兒 Bóérzhījīn Tútiěmùér)
  15. 1332-1332 CE: Ningzong (寧宗 Níngzōng)/ Borjigin Irinchibal (孛兒只斤懿璘質班 Bóérzhījīn Yìlínzhìbān)
  16. 1333-1370 CE: Huizong (惠宗 Huìzōng)/ Borjigin Toghan-Temür (孛兒只斤妥懽鐵木兒 Bóérzhījīn Tuǒhuān Tiěmùér)

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥ Yuan had vassals including Goryeo, Burma, Vietnam, Champa, Java, Golden Horde, Chagatai Khanate, Ilkhanate

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Mongol Empire ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ China - Early Ming ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ China ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ [17,000,000-26,000,000] ♥ km squared. Rough area of Yuan Kingdom (17,000,000) or larger cultural area including all Mongolian Kingdoms (26,000,000+).

♠ Capital ♣ Dadu; Shangdu ♥ Capital at Dadu (modern Beijing).[1] Shangdu was a summer capital.[2]

♠ Language ♣ Mongolian language; Chinese ♥

General Description

After a series of military campaigns, Kublai Khan, leader of the large and powerful Mongolian empire, took control of China and established a new Mongolian dynasty based in the territory of the former Jin empire. This polity, ruling from China, was to be known as the Yuan Dynasty, and lasted from 1271 CE until its eventual demise in 1368.[3]
The Yuan Dynasty was a continuation of the Mongolian Empire. However, Genghis Khan's empire had by this time fractured into rival Khanates, including the Chagatai Khanate, the Ilkhanate, and the Golden Horde. Although the Yuan Emperor was the nominal overlord of these regions, the Khanates were effectively independent.[4] The Yuan's core territory covered North China, Manchuria, and the Inner Mongolian steppe,[5] but military campaigns saw it expand over most of China, Tibet and into Korea.[6] However, their attempt to conquer Japan was thwarted by a typhoon.[7] Eventually, internal dissensions between the various ordos (political units) and local rebellions dissolved the fabric of the empire and led to its disaggregation.[8]

Population and political organization

The Yuan Empire was a sociopolitical blend of Chinese and Mongolian features. At the top of the administrative, religious and military hierarchy sat the emperor, ruling under the traditional Chinese 'Mandate of Heaven'.[9] Kublai Khan was the embodiment of a strong central authority, but the balance he created was only maintained for about 30 years after his death before emperors started to lose internal and external control over the Yuan dominion.[10] Administratively, the empire was modelled on its Jin predecessor, and ruled through a variety of entities such as the Secretariat, the Military Affairs Bureau, and the Censorate.[11] However, it also retained Mongolian institutions, such as the keshig (imperial guard) and the ordos, which corresponded to the palace-tents, household and staff of various princes and lords.[12] These ordos acted as separate vassal states under nominal imperial control.[13] In terms of territorial administration, the Yuan Dynasty comprised 12 provinces.[14] In total, the population of Yuan China may have been between 60[15] and 85 million.[16]
Communications across the vast empire were facilitated by an elaborate postal system, described in detail by Marco Polo. There were 1,400 relay stations located every 25 to 50 kilometres along the main axes of communication, and messengers could cover up to 400 kilometres a day to relay urgent news.[17] Resources could be controlled by the state thanks to the use of paper currency, issued in proportion to silver reserves, and a commercial tax on the government-sponsored ortoq merchant class.[18] Another significant source of wealth was the salt monopoly, which had reached 80 percent of the government's income by 1320.[19]
Kublai oversaw the construction of a new capital, known as Dadu to the Chinese, Khanbalik to the Turks and Daidu to the Mongols, on the site of modern Beijing.[20] At its height, Dadu may have had 600,000 inhabitants.[21] The location of this city in the vicinity of the northern frontier enabled Kublai to retain control over the Mongolian homeland.[22] Its architecture and design embodied the syncretism of Mongolian and Chinese influences: it featured two inner walls and an imperial city, but also had avenues wide enough for nine horsemen to gallop abreast, and Mongolian yurts flourished in its parks.[23] The court was cosmopolitan and although Kublai followed Tantric Buddhism, he also had Confucian advisors[24] and welcomed foreigners such as the Polo family. The Yuan were patrons of education through state schools and temples; state organizations sponsored the study of Confucianism, astronomy, historiography and medicine.[25]
Yuan China encompassed a territory that fluctuated between roughly 11 and 24 million square kilometres, supporting a population of between 60 and 85 million people.[26][27]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Po-Ju Tuan; Enrico Cioni ♥ EC coded Hierarchical Complexity variables.

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [24,000,000-11,000,000]: 1300 CE ♥ in squared kilometers. 21,000,000: 1271 CE; 22,000,000: 1280 CE; 23,500,000: 1290 CE; 24,000,000: 1309 CE; 11,000,000: 1310 CE; 10,750,000: 1320 CE; 10,500,000: 1330 CE; 10,250,000: 1340 CE; 10,000,000: 1350 CE; 7,500,000: 1360 CE. Also: 5,000,000: 1369 CE; 3,667,000: 1380 CE; 2,333,000: 1390 CE; 1,000,000: 1400 CE.

Contains interpolated data. [28]


♠ Polity Population ♣ [60,491,000-85,000,000]: 1300 CE ♥ People.

  • 1290 CE : 58,834,711 [29] ; 75,000,000 [30] ; 75,306,000 was an recent estimate
  • 1291 CE : 60,491,230 [31]; 76,496,000
  • 1293 CE : 79,816,000
  • 1330 CE : 84,873,000; 85,000,000 [32]
  • 1351 CE : 87,487,000

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 800,000: 1300 CE ♥ Inhabitants.

Hangzhou 800,000: 1300 CE.[33]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 7 ♥ levels. Inferred from administrative system [34].

1. Capital city
2. Circuit seat
3. Route seat
4. Prefecture seat
5. Sub-prefecture seat
6. County seat
7. Village

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 8 ♥ levels (number equivalent to the number of levels in the provincial government, plus the Emperor). The below is a simplification, though the administrative entities that have been left out were either outside "the streamlined structure of civilian government" or were at an equivalent level to other entities already present (e.g. the Branch Secretariat for Korea would have been at the same level as the eight principal Branch Secretariats), meaning that the number of levels coded would probably remain unchanged. For a very detailed description of the Yuan administrative system, see Endicott-West (1994).

1. Emperor

__Central Government__

2. Central Secretariat
"The Central Secretariat was the nerve center of the entire civilian bureaucracy. Most other agencies in the Yuan structure of communication and control were ultimately responsible to it. All memorials to the emperor, with the exception of those written by high-ranking military and censorial officials, for example, passed through the Central Secretariat. In turn, that office was empowered to make recommendations, draft regulations, and make responses subject to imperial approval. In addition to its role as communication center, the Central Secretariat controlled official appointments to virtually all civilian offices in the empire." [35] "The top official in the Central Secretariat was the chung-shu ling, in Khubilai's reign a post assumed by the heir apparent. Because the chung-shu ling was most often left vacant throughout the Yuan, the next two subordinate officials, the councillor of the right (yu ch'eng-hsiang) and the councillor of the left (tso ch'eng-hsiang), were in effect the highest civil officials in the empire. They in turn had direct control over the six ministries, the ministries of Personnel (Li-pu), Revenue (Hu-pu), Rites (Li-pu), War (Ping-pu), Pun- ishments (Hsing-pu), and Works (Kung-pu.)" [36]
3. Ministry of Personnel
"Of the six ministries, all formally established under Khubilai, the Ministry of Personnel was arguably the most influential, by virtue of its power to appoint civilian officials throughout the empire. Regional and local officials, the only civilian officials with whom commoners might have had direct contact, were regularly evaluated by the Ministry of Personnel for promotion, demotion, and transfer once in office." [37]
3. Ministry of Revenue
"The Ministry of Revenue was charged with overseeing population censuses, taxation records, state treasuries, currency, and government manufacturing. One of this ministry's most important duties was enforcing the numerous and elaborate Yiian regulations concerning paper currency. Because the Yiian government was committed to the empirewide circulation of paper notes, the procedures necessary for printing and administering paper currency were extensive. The government's deep concern is suggested by the fact that counterfeiting paper money was punishable by death." [38]
3. Ministry of Rites
"In terms of political and economic authority, the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Rites was far more narrowly defined than that of either the Ministry of Personnel or the Ministry of Revenue. Court ceremonies, music, assemblies, and sacrifices came under its aegis, as did such matters as granting posthumous titles, provisioning the imperial kitchen, and manufacturing the imperial seals. The authority of the Ministry of Rites did, however, extend beyond the limited sphere of court etiquette into the realm of sumptuary regulations, marriage rites, mourning rites, and burial rites, all of which affected commoners to a certain degree. In addition, the ministry upheld the rights of the different ethnic groups in Yiian China to practice their own particular rituals and not to have to conform to Chinese standards. Uighurs, for example, were directed to conduct their mourning in accordance with their own regulations; if they were to ignore their own mourning customs and follow instead Chinese practices, they would be subject to confiscation of their property. The Ministry of Rites was also charged with administering the state schools and regulating religious establishments." [39]
3. Ministry of War
"Of the six ministries, the Ministry of War was the least significant, as the real military authority in Yuan times resided in the Privy Council (Shu-mi yuan). The Privy Council, established in 1263, was at the pinnacle of a separate military bureaucracy, whereas the Ministry of War was subordinate to the Central Secretariat within the civilian bureaucracy. The insignificance of the Ministry of War is demonstrated by the fact that the Ping chih (Monograph on the military) in the Yuan shih (Official history of the Yuan) does not even mention the Ministry of War in its description of the structure of the Yuan military, instead stating that 'the Privy Council was set up to take 7 overall charge.' All military offices, including the imperial guard (su-wei), were ultimately responsible to the Privy Council in the military chain of command."
"The main duties of the Ministry of War were to manage the population rosters of military colonies and postal personnel, manage the requisitioning of animals for military purposes, and oversee the provisioning of postal relay stations. By 1320, however, the Ministry of War had relinquished its jurisdiction over the postal relay stations to the Bureau of Transmission (T'ung-cheng yuan), which had been created in 1276 separate from the military bureaucracy to supervise the postal relay system. All in all, the powerlessness of the Ministry of War reflects the Mongols' discomfort at having their military establishment subordinate to a civil branch of government. By investing power in the Privy Council the Yuan rulers were able to keep military affairs separate and secret from the civilian bureaucracy. In fact, the description of the Privy Council in the Yuan shih opens with the observation that it was 'charged with responsibility over military armaments and secret [military] affairs throughout the empire'." [40]
3. Ministry of Punishment
"The Ministry of Punishment's duties were drafting criminal laws, review- ing cases involving capital punishment, and registering criminals' dependents and confiscated goods. In comparison with that of earlier dynasties, the Yuan Ministry of Punishments gained in importance because it took over the responsibilities for judicial review that in previous times had rested with the Grand Court of Judicial Review (Ta-li ssu). The Grand Court originated in Northern Ch'i and Sui times and functioned as the highest legal agency in the Chinese empire, but it did not exist as such in Yuan times. For a brief time, from 1283 to 1285, a Grand Court existed in name only as a temporary redesignation of the Court of Justice for Uighurs (Tu-hu fu). Thus, by not having a Grand Court of Judicial Review, the Ministry of Punishments resolved and implemented legal decisions, which were subject only to an occasional revision by the Central Secretariat or the emperor himself." [41]
3. Ministry of Works
"The sixth ministry, the Ministry of Works, supervised government work- shops, the repair of fortifications, the assignment and labor of government artisans, the evaluation of artisan officials, and the conscription of laborers for government projects." [42]

__Provincial Government__

3. Branch Secretariats
"The permanently established Branch Secretariats (Hsing chung-shu sheng or hsing-sheng), which numbered eleven in all, were formally established during Khubilai's reign in order to manage the affairs of lesser territorial- administrative units, to pacify frontier areas, to manage the transport of grain, and to take overall charge of military and civil affairs at the regional level. They were directly answerable to the Central Secretariat in terms of the structure of communication and control. [...] Despite the consolidation of separate civil and military bureaucracies under Khubilai, civil and military jurisdictions were united at the level of the Branch Secretariats. The Branch Secretariats held authority over most garrison troops stationed throughout the empire, except in dire emergencies when Branch Privy Councils were temporarily established." [43]
"Yuan civilian government departed from earlier patterns and precedents in Chinese governmental history in the multiplicity of its levels of sub- metropolitan government and in the sheer number of civilian officials staffing those units of government. Thus, the levels of government subordinate to the Branch Secretariats were (in descending order): circuit (tao), route (lu), prefecture (san-fu or fu), subprefecture {chou), county (hsien), and special districts under the jurisdiction of lu or fu called lu-shih ssu. Not every unit was necessarily present on every level in the administrative hierarchy. In other words, eight of the eleven Branch Secretariats directly administered prefectures that were not subordinate to an intermediate route. In addition to administering seven routes, the Branch Secretariat of Kan-su (Kan-su teng- ch'u hsing chung-shu sheng) also directly administered two subprefectures." [44]
4. Officials in charge of circuits
"Those circuits administered by Pacification Offices (Hsiian-wei ssu) were particularly important as coordinators of civil and military affairs at the regional level. The Pacification Offices themselves handled military affairs in frontier areas and supervised troop movement and provisioning at the local level." [45]
5. Officials in charge of routes
6. Prefects
7. Sub-prefects
8. Officials in charge of special districts under the jurisdiction of routes or sub-prefectures.
8. Officials in charge of counties
9. Clerks serving under the officials in charge of each administrative unit

♠ Religious levels ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

1. Emperor
"Under persistent pressure from Chinese literati, the Mongolian rulers acqui- esced in carrying out Confucian rites, such as the suburban offerings to heaven, but they did not usually attend them in person. One may surmise that the imperial family felt more comfortable with the Buddhist rituals introduced by the 'Phags-pa Lama. The imperial family attended in person the Buddhist celebratory processions and plays in the first month of the New Year at which Chinese, Muslim, and Tangut musicians entertained.' The ruling Mongols also continued to practice shamanist rituals and apparently saw no conflict of interest in deriving legitimacy from more than one ideological—religious tradition." [46]
2. Ministry of Rites

"In terms of political and economic authority, the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Rites was far more narrowly defined than that of either the Ministry of Personnel or the Ministry of Revenue. Court ceremonies, music, assemblies, and sacrifices came under its aegis, as did such matters as granting posthumous titles, provisioning the imperial kitchen, and manufacturing the imperial seals. The authority of the Ministry of Rites did, however, extend beyond the limited sphere of court etiquette into the realm of sumptuary regulations, marriage rites, mourning rites, and burial rites, all of which affected commoners to a certain degree. In addition, the ministry upheld the rights of the different ethnic groups in Yiian China to practice their own particular rituals and not to have to conform to Chinese standards. Uighurs, for example, were directed to conduct their mourning in accordance with their own regulations; if they were to ignore their own mourning customs and follow instead Chinese practices, they would be subject to confiscation of their property. The Ministry of Rites was also charged with administering the state schools and regulating religious establishments." [47]

3. Ritual specialists
Imams, shamans, Buddhist monks, Taoist priests, etc. "In matters of religion, Khubilai was all-inclusive. He patronized, or at least sanctioned, every religious group in his realm, from Daoism and Buddhists to Christians and Muslims. ... He added imperial Chinese ceremonies to his government's practice, and built the most ritually correct Chinese city ever constructed for his capital at Dadu (modern Beijing)."[48]

♠ Military levels ♣ 6 ♥ levels.

1. Emperor
2. Privy Council
"Of the six ministries, the Ministry of War was the least significant, as the real military authority in Yuan times resided in the Privy Council (Shu-mi yuan). The Privy Council, established in 1263, was at the pinnacle of a separate military bureaucracy, whereas the Ministry of War was subordinate to the Central Secretariat within the civilian bureaucracy. The insignificance of the Ministry of War is demonstrated by the fact that the Ping chih (Monograph on the military) in the Yuan shih (Official history of the Yuan) does not even mention the Ministry of War in its description of the structure of the Yuan military, instead stating that 'the Privy Council was set up to take 7 overall charge.' All military offices, including the imperial guard (su-wei), were ultimately responsible to the Privy Council in the military chain of command." [49]
2. Branch Secretariat
"The [Privy Council] did not, however, exert direct control over garrison troops stationed in the Branch Secretariats outside the metropolitan province. The myriarchies (wan-hufu, M: ttimeri) from which the garrison troops were drawn were answerable to the Branch Secretariats, which of course were territorial administrations in the civilian bureaucracy. This meshing of civil and military authority at the regional level was apparently aimed at facilitating cooperation between the two. Nevertheless, as we mentioned earlier, in dire military emergencies, as in the case of insurrections against the dynasty, a temporary Branch Privy Council would be established until the emergency had passed." [50]
3. Imperial guard
"In regard to administrative organization, the units of the imperial guard were under the jurisdiction of the Privy Council (Shu-mi yuan), which was at the apex of the separate military bureaucracy." [51]
3. Military officers in charge of provincial garrisons
4. Other officers inferred
5. Other officers inferred
6. Individual soldier

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ standing army [52]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ e.g. in the Khan's personal guard. [53]

Professional:

"By the tenth century, soldiers, to the intense consternation of statesmen, were wholly divorced from any productive activities and earned their livings by skill at arms. Despite many attempts to replace this "mercenary" system, it remained in place until the end of imperial times."[54]

However:

"The problem Chinese statesmen had with the standing army was how to keep it out of politics and isolate its functions to a static, reliable instrument of dynastic stability ...The answer for the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties was to fuedalize much of the army into a hereditary class with attached lands that would support them in peacetime."[55]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ "... begun during the Tang dynasty... The rise of religious professionals and soldiers as clearly separate groups was contrary to the previous normative view of society divided into knights (shi, the term that would later be applied to the literati or gentry), farmers, artisans and merchants."[56]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ civilian and military bureaucracy [57]

♠ Examination system ♣ present ♥ Yuan rarely held imperial examination but adopted heredity and recommendation as the major recruit sources. Only 16 imperial examinations were held during Yuan.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ present ♥ The Ministry of Personnel made appointments, did personnel evaluations, and recommended promotions and demotions. [58]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ "The Mongols apparently introduced greater leniency into the Chinese legal system. The number of capital crimes amounted to 135, less than one-half the number mandated in the Sung dynasty codes. Criminals could, following Mongolian practice, avoid punishment by paying a sum to the government. Khubilai could grant amnesties, and he did so, even to rebels or political enemies. Officials of the provincial or central government routinely reviewed local judicial decisions on serious crimes in order to prevent abuses of the rights of the accused. Because there have not been any careful studies of this code in operation, it is difficult to tell whether these statutory reforms translated into a more lenient and flexible system than under the earlier Chinese dynasties. Yet the legal ideals embodied in this code supported by Khubilai and the Mongols did indeed appear less harsh than earlier Chinese ones." [59]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ The Ministry of Law handled administration of law. [60]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ "The Mongols apparently introduced greater leniency into the Chinese legal system. The number of capital crimes amounted to 135, less than one-half the number mandated in the Sung dynasty codes. Criminals could, following Mongolian practice, avoid punishment by paying a sum to the government. Khubilai could grant amnesties, and he did so, even to rebels or political enemies. Officials of the provincial or central government routinely reviewed local judicial decisions on serious crimes in order to prevent abuses of the rights of the accused. Because there have not been any careful studies of this code in operation, it is difficult to tell whether these statutory reforms translated into a more lenient and flexible system than under the earlier Chinese dynasties. Yet the legal ideals embodied in this code supported by Khubilai and the Mongols did indeed appear less harsh than earlier Chinese ones." [61]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ present ♥ "The Mongols apparently introduced greater leniency into the Chinese legal system. The number of capital crimes amounted to 135, less than one-half the number mandated in the Sung dynasty codes. Criminals could, following Mongolian practice, avoid punishment by paying a sum to the government. Khubilai could grant amnesties, and he did so, even to rebels or political enemies. Officials of the provincial or central government routinely reviewed local judicial decisions on serious crimes in order to prevent abuses of the rights of the accused. Because there have not been any careful studies of this code in operation, it is difficult to tell whether these statutory reforms translated into a more lenient and flexible system than under the earlier Chinese dynasties. Yet the legal ideals embodied in this code supported by Khubilai and the Mongols did indeed appear less harsh than earlier Chinese ones." [62]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Common feature of Chinese agriculture from the Shang Dynasty onwards.
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥ Unknown.
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Including markets specialised in grain, livestock, noodles, satin, fur/pelt, ducks and geese, iron, jewelry, coral, etc. [63]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ [64]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ Yuan dynasty tried to cut a canal across the base of the Shandong peninsula (which was later abandoned in 1280 CE). Yuan also tried to revive the Grand Canal, but was unable to keep Grand Canal in operation due to the enormous cost. [65]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥
  • 1277 CE: Quanzhou, Shanghai, Qingyuan (current Lishui, Zhejiang province), Ganpu [66]
  • later: Wenzhou, Qingyuan, Guangdong [67]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ present ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Chinese
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ present ♥ Chinese
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Chinese

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥
♠ History ♣ present ♥ "In addition to the many directorates that oversaw the material well-being of the imperial household, the emperor's ritual and intellectual activities were served by the Han-lin and National History Academy (Han-lin chien kuo-shih yuan) and the Mongolian Han-lin Academy (Meng-ku Han-lin yuan), among others. The joining together of the Han-lin Academy and the National History Office into one joint academy was an institutional innovation undertaken by Khubilai in 1261 on the advice of the senior Han-lin academician Wang O. This apparently stemmed from Wang's attempt to convince Khubilai of the need to begin compiling standard histories of the Liao and Chin as well as the records of the pre-Khubilai Mongolian rulers. In 1264, with the removal of the capital to Ta-tu (modern Peking), the Han-lin and National History Academy was formally established, and the foundations for the composition of the Liao and Chin dynastic histories were laid." [68]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ “The influence of Islamic medicine on China during the period was also substantial. The Mongols preferred Islamic medicine themselves, and also made it available to their subjects through public clinics.” [69] "Other occupational groups fared better under Khubilai than under the Chinese emperors. Physicians were one such group that benefited from Mongolian rule. As a pragmatist, Khubilai valued medicine and accorded doctors a higher social status. He established branches of the Huang-hui ssu (Imperial Hospitals), staffed primarily by Muslim doctors, in K'ai-p'ing and in north China to care for the court. Mongolian officials consulted Muslim physicians, and thirty-six volumes of Muslim medicinal prescriptions were added to the Imperial Library." [70]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥ Unknown.
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥ Unknown.
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ present ♥ "The Ministry of Revenue was charged with overseeing population cen- suses, taxation records, state treasuries, currency, and government manufac- turing. One of this ministry's most important duties was enforcing the numerous and elaborate Yiian regulations concerning paper currency. Be- cause the Yiian government was committed to the empirewide circulation of paper notes, the procedures necessary for printing and administering paper currency were extensive. The government's deep concern is suggested by the fact that counterfeiting paper money was punishable by death." [71]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ There were mounted couriers during Yuan. Beneath the courier system and parallel to it, the Ministry of War also operated a postal system to move routine government communications. The system relied on runners rather than mounted messengers. The runners wore large belts, set all round with bells, so that when they ran there were audible at a great distance. [72] "The most remarkable improvement in transport involved the postal relay system. China had had postal stations and relays at least since the Han dynasty, but the Mongolian rulers vastly extended the system. The postal stations were designed for the transmission and delivery of official mail, but they were also available to traveling officials, military men, and foreign state guests, aided in the transport of foreign and domestic tribute, and facilitated trade. They were not intended as hostels for merchants, but they came to be used as such and were vital links in the networks of foreign and domestic commerce. By the end of Khubilai's reign, China had more than 1,400 postal stations, which in turn had at their disposal about 50,000 horses, 1,400 oxen, 6,700 mules, 4,000 carts, almost 6,000 boats, over 200 dogs, and 1,150 sheep. The individual stations were anywhere from fifteen to forty miles apart, and the attendants worked in the stations as part of their corvee obligations. In an emergency, the rider-messengers could cover up to 250 miles a day to deliver significant news, a remarkably efficient mail service for the thirteenth, or any other, century. Despite abuses by officials, merchants, and attendants, the postal system operated efficiently, a fact to which numerous foreign travelers, including Marco Polo, have attested." [73]
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ The Mongol empire established astonishing communications networks even before the Yuan. Posting stations were said to be found at distance of twenty-five or thirty miles along all the main highways leading to the provinces. [74] "The most remarkable improvement in transport involved the postal relay system. China had had postal stations and relays at least since the Han dynasty, but the Mongolian rulers vastly extended the system. The postal stations were designed for the transmission and delivery of official mail, but they were also available to traveling officials, military men, and foreign state guests, aided in the transport of foreign and domestic tribute, and facilitated trade. They were not intended as hostels for merchants, but they came to be used as such and were vital links in the networks of foreign and domestic commerce. By the end of Khubilai's reign, China had more than 1,400 postal stations, which in turn had at their disposal about 50,000 horses, 1,400 oxen, 6,700 mules, 4,000 carts, almost 6,000 boats, over 200 dogs, and 1,150 sheep. The individual stations were anywhere from fifteen to forty miles apart, and the attendants worked in the stations as part of their corvee obligations. In an emergency, the rider-messengers could cover up to 250 miles a day to deliver significant news, a remarkably efficient mail service for the thirteenth, or any other, century. Despite abuses by officials, merchants, and attendants, the postal system operated efficiently, a fact to which numerous foreign travelers, including Marco Polo, have attested." [75]
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥ "The most remarkable improvement in transport involved the postal relay system. China had had postal stations and relays at least since the Han dynasty, but the Mongolian rulers vastly extended the system. The postal stations were designed for the transmission and delivery of official mail, but they were also available to traveling officials, military men, and foreign state guests, aided in the transport of foreign and domestic tribute, and facilitated trade. They were not intended as hostels for merchants, but they came to be used as such and were vital links in the networks of foreign and domestic commerce." [76]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Po-Ju Tuan ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥
♠ Crossbow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ present ♥ "Counter-weight trebuchet at Xiangyang, China 1272."[77] 1272 CE Mongols "constructed platforms for the new "Muslim" (huihui) trebuchets" [78]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ present ♥ "cache of hundreds of cast iron cannons found in Nanjing manufactured between 1356 and 1357" [79]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ present ♥ The general consensus is that hand cannons originated in China, and were spread from there to the rest of the world [80] "The earliest known specimen of a gun was excavated in July of 1970 in Acheng county, Heilongjiang province. Made of bronze, it is 34 centimeters long, weighs 3.5 kilograms and has three distinct parts to its length: a barrel, powder chamber, and socket for a handle at the rear end. It has been dated no later than 1290. ... A 1962 find with an inscribed date of 1332 was 35.3 centimeters long and weighed 6.94 kilograms. Both weapons had touchholes to allow ignition of the gunpowder from the back. The similar sizes, forms, and materials are striking, suggesting that this simple design was being manufactured to regular specifications. ... It is even possible that true guns were used in the Mongol invasion of Japan." [81] c1338 CE cast iron gun developed.[82]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ Never used in warfare. [83]
♠ Donkeys ♣ ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥
♠ Camels ♣ ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ "In late 1267, the Mongol army began to ring Xiangyang and Fancheng with forts and contest the Song navy for control of the river."[84]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ present ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ * e.g. 3, 500 warships were operated during the 2nd Mongol invasions of Japan (第二次元日戰爭/弘安之役) Yuan navy had a force "somewhere between 300 to 700 ships" at the battle of Yaishan 1279 CE. [85]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ City of Fancheng had a "palisade wall along the river" which the Mongols burned.[86] Inferred that other Chinese cities under Mongol control had them.
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ Within technical capability of time.
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ Within technical capability of time.
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ City of Fancheng had a moat which the Mongols filled in. [87] Inferred that other Chinese cities under Mongol control had them.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ In the steppe region the preceding Khitan Empire had built walls without mortar. Inferred they have inherited/maintained existing walls or used similar methods themselves.
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ Within technical capability of time, certainly within the region of China.
♠ Fortified camps ♣ inferred present ♥ "In late 1267, the Mongol army began to ring Xiangyang and Fancheng with forts and contest the Song navy for control of the river."[88]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ inferred absent ♥ Impeachment is only mentioned for of high officials, not for the head of state. "Early in 1291 several Mongol and Turkish officials impeached Sangha. The final blow came in March, when two high Mongol aristocrats, ÖCHICHER and Öz-Temür (Örlüg Noyan), intervened against Sangha, accusing him of corruption. After a debate in the emperor’s presence, Sangha was disgraced and executed on August 17." [89]

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Hereditary ruler position. Most office positions held by a hereditary elite. "Various scholars over the past half-century have dispelled the notion that a sort of caste system was at work in Yuan China. It is quite easy, in fact, to find examples of Chinese holding official positions (such as darughachi) that according to government regulation they were not entitled to hold. The frequent exceptions to the Yuan regulations, which attempted to set aside certain offices for specific ethnic groups, indicate a fair degree of political mobility, although the paths to office were nonetheless not seen as traditional by Chinese scholars. This is not to say, however, that the ruling Mongols did not attempt to construct a differentiated society, in which they themselves and their preconquest allies -the Western and Central Asians- would benefit most. Although demographic realities dictated their employment of Chinese at virtually all levels of government, the Mongols nonetheless withheld certain privileges for non-Han ethnic groups." [90] "In March 1262 Lian Xixian was promoted to manager (pingzhang) in the central Secretariat with supervision over Shaanxi and Sichuan, and in 1263 he returned to the capital. Lian Xixian now tried to push Qubilai toward curtailing the hereditary privileges of the conquest class. In his 1265 inspection tour of Shandong, he concentrated on punishing abuses of power by princely appanage holders." [91]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Jill Levine; Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ Mandate of Heaven. [92]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ inferred absent ♥ Rulers are divine figures, descendant from deified ancestor spirits, who became representative of / equated with di. [93] Puett points out, though, that the divine nature of the Emperor was something established through his ritual actions, not something he was 'born into'. " There is no claim that, for example, a given ruler was in fact born of Heaven rather than of human parents, or that the lineage of a given ruling dynasty has a closer biological link to Heaven than other lineages. On the contrary, the relations are always defined ex post facto—a ruler takes power and only then, through sacrifice, does he define his ancestral lineage as royal and does he define Heaven as his father."[94] However, Buddhism was also an influential religion in the Yuan state. "In Buddhism the king is a Bodhisattva or a Cakravartin, a greater being in the eyes of the Buddhists than any Hindu god" [95]. Khubilai Khan was considered to be a chakravartin, and the reincarnation of Manjushri. He even wanted to make Buddhism the state religion, but was not allowed because religious freedom is one of the tenets of Buddhism. Chakravartins do not have supernatural powers, but are chosen by the Dharma wheel which guides their rule. It's a title that does not correspond to deification. [96]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ {present; absent} ♥ According to traditional Chinese ideology, dating back to the Han Dynasty, men who were well-versed in the Classics (i.e. scholars and state officials) were superior to other social groups - specifically, farmers, artesans, and merchants. However, it is worth noting that it was possible for farmers, artesans and merchants to become literate, and join the ranks of their social superiors. As for Confucianism, strictly speaking it only really promoted hierarchy within the family - there is no indication, in Confucian literature, that social elites are inherently superior to commoners. And all three main Chinese religions - Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism - required all social classes to follow the same moral code [97] For a slightly different viewpoint: "Confucianism emphasizes not only the domination of the head of state over his officials and subjects but also the domination of male over female, old over young, and officials over their subjects.[98] Buddhism is fundamentally egalitarian: every human being has a potential to achieve what Buddha achieved, regardless of class or ethnicity [99] .

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ Rulers are divine figures, descendant from deified ancestor spirits, who became representative of / equated with di. [100] Puett points out, though, that the divine nature of the Emperor was something established through his ritual actions, not something he was 'born into'. " There is no claim that, for example, a given ruler was in fact born of Heaven rather than of human parents, or that the lineage of a given ruling dynasty has a closer biological link to Heaven than other lineages. On the contrary, the relations are always defined ex post facto—a ruler takes power and only then, through sacrifice, does he define his ancestral lineage as royal and does he define Heaven as his father."[101]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ {absent; present} ♥ According to traditional Chinese ideology, dating back to the Han Dynasty, men who were well-versed in the Classics (i.e. scholars and state officials) were superior to other social groups - specifically, farmers, artesans, and merchants. However, it is worth noting that it was possible for farmers, artesans and merchants to become literate, and join the ranks of their social superiors. As for Confucianism, strictly speaking it only really promoted hierarchy within the family - there is no indication, in Confucian literature, that social elites are inherently superior to commoners. And all three main Chinese religions - Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism - required all social classes to follow the same moral code [102] For a slightly different viewpoint: "Confucianism emphasizes not only the domination of the head of state over his officials and subjects but also the domination of male over female, old over young, and officials over their subjects.[103] Buddhism is fundamentally egalitarian: every human being has a potential to achieve what Buddha achieved, regardless of class or ethnicity. Before the advent of Buddhism in Mongolia in the 16th century, Mongolia was already fairly egalitarian. Even though social differences between Chinggisids and non-Chinggisids were marked, the elites were not considered spiritually superior. [104] .

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ Buddhism reinforced the idea of prosociality, while Daoism and Confucianism focused on self-cultivation. Private donors: “The notion was that a gift could redeem sins committed in this life and therefore reduce or eliminate punishment in the afterlife.” Donors from all classes gave different types of property- land, mills, silk, slaves, coppers, and more. [105] “[Pierre-Sylvain] Regis claimed that Confucius’s basic message was charity, which was deemed universal and reasonable.” [106]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ In traditional Chinese ideology, it was seen as virtuous to build roads, bridges, etc. [107] Buddhism: “Leading a moral life is seen as having a wider social dimension as well. Establishing public parks, constructing bridges, digging wells and providing a residence for the homeless (see SN 1:1:47; similarly Jat 31) - all these are commended.” [108] Daoism (and, to a lesser extent, Confucianism): “The ‘’Taishang ganying pian’’ is a short anonymous tract (about 1,275 characters), probably composed in the second half of the Northern Song dynasty and traditionally regarded as the first and most paradigmatic morality book (*’’shansu’’). While closely associated with Taosim[...]the ‘’Ganying pian’’ also draws on sources beyond Taoism to present a message geared to a broad audience. [...] The earliest known edition of the ‘’Ganying pian’’ was transmitted with commentary by one Li Changling abou 1165. [...] To accumulate merit, fulfill vows, or perform a recognizably moral service, various eminent figures republished the ‘’Ganying pian’’ with commentaries. While Li Changling stressed the spirit of the Three Teachings (Confucianism, Taism, and Buddhism), scholar-officials like Zhen Dexiu (1178-1235), Hui Dong (1697-1758; ECCP 357-58) and Yu Yue (1821-1906; ECCP 944-45), among others, emphasized its Confucian morality for the masses. [...] As distribution of the ‘’Ganying pian’’, like all morality books, was thought to be a virtue that earned one merit, large and small donations toward its printing were conventional ways of doing good. It is still distributed free in many temples.” [109]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [110] [111] [112]

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