CnWeiWS

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Early Wei Dynasty ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Zhanguo ♥

Zhanguo translates as ‘Warring States’; attested in Guanzi (Writings of Master Guan), compiled list of political-philosophical theories associated with Guanzi, Minister of Qi from the 7th c bce, probably compiled sometime in the first c bce

multi-polar system where territory of MYRV, and all of China, was split between numerous quasi-polities, though each of which with similar internal structure. MYRV was split between the Chu, Qi, and Wei, with Zhao and Han being right outside the Wei and Yellow Rivers confluence.

♠ Peak Date ♣ 353 BCE ♥

"In 353 BC, Qi defeated Wei, the then-hegemonic power. In 341 BC, Qi further annihilated Wei's core forces and seized the hegemonic status." [1]

reforms of Chancellor Li Kui under Marquis Wen [2]

"Around 445 BC, Wei started the new wave of self-strengthening reforms by systematizing preexisting practices and introducing innovative institutions."[3]

"... the expansionist Wei lost hegemony in 341 BC and then great-power status in 293 BC."[4]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 445-225 BCE ♥

445 - reign of Marquis Wen, first independent ruler in the state of Wei; 225 - defeat by Qin

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ confederated state ♥

all warring states kingdoms centralized control, but still relied to some degree on the hereditary noble lineages for support and resources

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ nominal ♥

many alliances were formed between Warring States kingdoms, usually military alliances against another kingdom, but were fleeting and quickly abandoned in favor of other alliances throughout this period (cf. Tin-bor Hui 2005)

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Jin Dynasty ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ elite migration ♥ former Zhou noble lineages became independent rulers of Wei territory
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Imperial Qin ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Chinese ♥ shared linguistic and material culture between all states in the mainland area (Huaxia)
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ [3,000,000-4,000,000] ♥ km^2

♠ Capital ♣ Daliang ♥ However: "Qin, Han, Zhao, and Wei moved their capital closer to their targets to facilitate expansionist campaigns."[5]


♠ Language ♣ Chinese ♥

General Description

The span of time between the mid-5th and mid-3rd centuries BCE in China is known as the Warring States period because it was dominated by conflicts between the seven independent states of Qin, Qi, Chu, Yan, Han, Zhao, and Wei.[6] The period was marked by the development of authoritarian leadership, the creation of standing armies, and the mass conscription of peasants into military service.[7] New weapons included the crossbow, an improved iron sword, and armour.[8] The first appearance of military specialists such as Sunzi, author of The Art of War, dates to the Warring States period.[9]
The Warring States period was also a time of economic growth. The development of trade, occupational complexity, and markets created a class of merchants and private landlords.[10] Iron tools were used for agriculture and the use of irrigation and fertilizer became more widespread.[11] Intellectualism flourished, with the rise of Confucian philosophers Mengzi and Xunzi.[12]
In the 5th century BCE, the state of Jin was divided into three states: Wei, Han and Zhao. Wei was one of the largest states of the period, ruling parts of modern Shanxi and later expanding to cover western Shandong and northern and western Henan.[13] During the Warring States period, Wei mounted a number of successful military campaigns against neighbouring states, but fell into decline after a loss to Qi in 341 BCE.[14]
The Warring States period ended with the rise of the Qin state and its defeat of the imperial Zhou court.[15] Qin conquered the state of Wei in 225 BCE.[16]

Population and political organization

Several of China's major political institutions were created during the Warring States Period.[17] Zhou rulers were replaced by strong authoritarian rulers who governed independent territorial states.[18] These territorial rulers commanded dependent officials, who were responsible for registering and mobilizing peasant households for military service.[19]
It is difficult to find substantiated estimates for the population of the Wei state.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 90,000 ♥ km^2 Reference?

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [4-5] ♥

pre-reforms (fifth c bce):

1. Capital city

2. town
3. feudal estates (?)
4. village

post-reforms (fifth c bce):

1. Capital city

2. Commandery capital
3. County
4. town
5. village


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 5 ♥

1. Ruler

_Central government_

2. Prime Minister
"The most important codification of Chinese law is the Fa jing (Canon of Law), compiled during the Warring States period by the prime minister of the Wei state Li Kui (455-395 B.C.)"[20]
3. Chancellor, Secretaries, etc
Court officials (Chancellor, Secretaries, etc)[21]
4. Assistants / Secretaries / scribes
4. Manager of state-run iron/bronze foundry inferred level
5. Worker in state-run iron/bronze foundry inferred level


_Provincial government_

2. jun (commanderies)
Provincial / commandery governors; military generals[22]
"At the onset of the Warring States period, Wei reorganized the whole guo - core as well as conquered territories - into a two-tier structure of jun (commanderies) and xian (which evolved from dependent districts to counties). As the jun and xian became standard administrative units in the Warring States period, strategists could evaluate the relative capabilities of various states in terms of their numbers of jun and xian."[23]
3. xian (counties)
4. town heads
5. village-level chiefs


♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥

Legalism took precedence over rites in this period = no state cult?


♠ Military levels ♣ [4-5] ♥

1. ruler
2. chief officials (e.g. commandant)/Councilors; also in many states were elite troops under direct command of ruler[24]
3. [Commandery Protector]
3. generals (jiang or jiang jun)
4.
“specialized officer corps” [25]
5. Individual soldier

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ "Wu Qi, a military general who arrived [in Chu] from Wei in 390 BC...."[26]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ "Although most soldiers were drafted peasants, it became common to select and train elite corps of crack troops."[27]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥

"Around 445 BC, Wei started the new wave of self-strengthening reforms by systematizing preexisting practices and introducing innovative institutions."[28]

"In short, during Qin's early ascendance, all other great powers introduced various elements of self-strengthening reforms such as the mass army, national taxation, household registration, and hierarchical administration."[29]

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥ "Before the Northern Sung, the principal means of entry into the social and political elite was by official recommendation or kinship relations." [30]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred present ♥ "Around 445 BC, Wei started the new wave of self-strengthening reforms ... In conventional accounts, Wu Qi, a military general who arrived [in Chu] from Wei in 390 BC, introduced a self-strengthening program to eradicate the entrenched nobility and establish meritocracy. The reforms were so comprehensive that Wu Qi was much hated by the aristocrats. When the king died in 381 BC, Wu Qi was killed and the reforms were abandoned."[31]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Wei had state workshops supervised by officials (artisans were often convict labourers). These state workshops included coin mints, bronze foundries, and lacquer or pottery workshops.[32]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥

"The most important codification of Chinese law is the Fa jing (Canon of Law), compiled during the Warring States period by the prime minister of the Wei state Li Kui (455-395 B.C.), who may be called the real founder of the Legalist school ... The compilation of Fa jing was based on the then current laws of the various states and became the prototype of later Chinese imperial codes ... All the legal codes of imperial dynasties, from the Qin code to the Qing code, can be traced to Fa jing. ... There were always minor changes but the basic legal structure remained intact. Even the laws proclaimed during periods of alien rule, like the Mongolian Yuan dynasty and the Manchu Qing dynasty, were no exception."[33]

"The Legalists were the chief proponents of the use of a penal code to control the people. During the Warring States period, the sovereigns of the various states had little use for morals and rites. They were more concerned with building strong states, strengthening their armies, and enlarging their territories. This can only be realized by being able to keep a submissive people. The Legalists proved more useful for their political aspirations, as they exerted a major influence on Chinese traditional law and legal institutions, which were set up under their direction."[34]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred present ♥

"The Legalists were the chief proponents of the use of a penal code to control the people. During the Warring States period, the sovereigns of the various states had little use for morals and rites. They were more concerned with building strong states, strengthening their armies, and enlarging their territories. This can only be realized by being able to keep a submissive people. The Legalists proved more useful for their political aspirations, as they exerted a major influence on Chinese traditional law and legal institutions, which were set up under their direction."[35]

♠ Courts ♣ inferred present ♥

"The Legalists were the chief proponents of the use of a penal code to control the people. During the Warring States period, the sovereigns of the various states had little use for morals and rites. They were more concerned with building strong states, strengthening their armies, and enlarging their territories. This can only be realized by being able to keep a submissive people. The Legalists proved more useful for their political aspirations, as they exerted a major influence on Chinese traditional law and legal institutions, which were set up under their direction."[36]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥ Unknown.

"The Legalists were the chief proponents of the use of a penal code to control the people. During the Warring States period, the sovereigns of the various states had little use for morals and rites. They were more concerned with building strong states, strengthening their armies, and enlarging their territories. This can only be realized by being able to keep a submissive people. The Legalists proved more useful for their political aspirations, as they exerted a major influence on Chinese traditional law and legal institutions, which were set up under their direction."[37]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ Irrigation known in this period: "The oldest known hydraulic engineers of China were Sunshu Ao (6th century BCE) of the Spring and Autumn Period and Ximen Bao (5th century BCE) of the Warring States period, both of whom worked on large irrigation projects."[38] "Around 430 B.C., the first known large-scale irrigation project was built on the North China Plain (near present-day Hebei Province) to channel water from the Yellow River to nearby fields."[39]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred present ♥ "Besides the more well-known extensive irrigation works and man-made transport canals linking up the major rivers, the provision of water supplies to its cities formed the third important element of China's ancient water civilization."[40] "The entire underground water supply pipeline system of Yangcheng [Warring States Period?] was discovered in archaeological excavations (Figure 8.2), providing important physical evidence of early water supply of cities in ancient China."[41]
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ "Bamboo slips excavated in a tomb in Linyi, Shangdong province, in 1972 contain sections of a document known as Shi fa (Rules about markets). According to Shi fa, markets were administered by officials, specific products were sold in prescribed locations, and misconduct in the marketplace was punished."[42] "Although markets are a stipulation of the ideal Chinese city since Zhou times, Han is the first period from which one can confirm their presence."[43] "The marketplace became a key site in Warring States and early imperial cities, a site marked both by a tower and a grid. It provided the interface between politics and commerce. Walled, laid out in a grid, it was a scene of state authority. This included not only regulation of prices and the quality of goods, but also the proclamation of decrees, the carrying out of punishments, and the display of corpses. Despite these attempts at control, the market was also a site for activities outside the state sphere. ..." [44]
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Spring and Autumn Period [45].

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ reference to road building in Jin state.[46]
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ inferred present ♥ reference to canal building in Wu state.[47]
♠ Ports ♣ ♥ No coastline--but what about river ports?

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥ Previously coded as present, but given lack of references and occasional confusion regarding these variables (now clearly defined as "sites not associated with residential areas"), safer to "un-code" them. EC

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥ Unknown.
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ contracts (quan) written between state and officials as a way of budget accounting.[48] Historical records and documents refer to the Fa jing.[49]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ contracts (quan) written between state and officials as a way of budget accounting.[50] Historical records and documents refer to the Fa jing.[51] Ancient Chinese language.
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ present ♥ Ancient Chinese language.
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Ancient Chinese language.

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ Clear that each Warring State kingdom kept records and produced a great deal of political, philosophical, and religious work; most literature from this period was destroyed in various wars however, and ultimately systematically destroyed by Qin and later Han Empires, though parts of the works produced in this period were adapted or transmitted to later authors.
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred present ♥ Clear that each Warring State kingdom kept records and produced a great deal of political, philosophical, and religious work; most literature from this period was destroyed in various wars however, and ultimately systematically destroyed by Qin and later Han Empires, though parts of the works produced in this period were adapted or transmitted to later authors.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥ ritual and religious thought in ancient China apparently not associated with sacred texts sensu stricto (i.e. texts containing "the word of god"), though works of sayings of religious figures (e.g. Confucius) were certainly deemed as important and canonized as ‘five classics’[52]
♠ Religious literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Clear that each Warring State kingdom kept records and produced a great deal of political, philosophical, and religious work; most literature from this period was destroyed in various wars however, and ultimately systematically destroyed by Qin and later Han Empires, though parts of the works produced in this period were adapted or transmitted to later authors.
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥ Unknown. Clear that each Warring State kingdom kept records and produced a great deal of political, philosophical, and religious work; most literature from this period was destroyed in various wars however, and ultimately systematically destroyed by Qin and later Han Empires, though parts of the works produced in this period were adapted or transmitted to later authors.
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Zhou dynasty had the Zuo Zhuan which was a late 4th BCE history of the Spring and Autumn period.
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥ Clear that each Warring State kingdom kept records and produced a great deal of political, philosophical, and religious work; most literature from this period was destroyed in various wars however, and ultimately systematically destroyed by Qin and later Han Empires, though parts of the works produced in this period were adapted or transmitted to later authors.
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥ Unknown. Clear that each Warring State kingdom kept records and produced a great deal of political, philosophical, and religious work; most literature from this period was destroyed in various wars however, and ultimately systematically destroyed by Qin and later Han Empires, though parts of the works produced in this period were adapted or transmitted to later authors.
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥ Unknown. Clear that each Warring State kingdom kept records and produced a great deal of political, philosophical, and religious work; most literature from this period was destroyed in various wars however, and ultimately systematically destroyed by Qin and later Han Empires, though parts of the works produced in this period were adapted or transmitted to later authors.


Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ present ♥ cowrie shells, tortoise shells, jade used as currency; also some coins shaped like cowrie shells, clearly imitating a previous form of currency[53]
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ some silver, tin especially, likely gold as well[54]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ "The earliest minted form of currency was the bu, a coin cast of bronze in the form of a miniature double-pronged digging stick or hoe, complete with hollow socket. They are particularly densely concentrated in the vicinity of the Eastern Zhou capital of Luoyang and in the states of Han, Zhao, and Wei."[55] Different states had different types/shapes of metal objects used as a store of wealth; unclear if used as medium of exchange. Han, Wei, Zhao used ‘coin’ shaped like spade; knife-shaped coin used in Qi, Yen, and Zhao; cowrie-shaped coin used Chu; circular coin with hole in Qin, Zhao, and Zhou[56] Unclear if coinage was always monopoly of state, or produced by large merchant groups/families Wei: spade-shaped token. true coins not introduced until state of Qin in late third c bce (right after this period)
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ specialist messengers likely used by the government
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred present ♥ From the Shang period roads considered important enough to be "controlled by a special official"[57] but references to post usually begin with the Qin's First Emperor who "constructed post roads across his empire".[58] However, Confucius (551-479 BCE) said: "News of good deeds travels faster than the mail"[59] which strongly implies a postal system was present at his time. One may infer from the importance of roads a basic postal system existed earlier.
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥ unlikely literacy widespread enough for a general postal service to be necessary.

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Dan Hoyer ; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ In bronze.
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ "short bronze blades of the Warring States period" [60]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Iron introduced from Central Asia in roughly 500 bce. Mainly used in agricultural tools, but adapted to swords and other military pieces in Chu and then the other kingdoms by the later 4th c bce; unclear if was present in the period being coded here, or only became prevalent in the proceeding period (imperial Qin)[61] [62] Helmets "sometimes made of iron".[63]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ First steel adapted by Chu in 5th century BCE[64], likely spread quickly to other states "As the smiths in time learned the possibilities of their material, and began producing quench-hardened steel swords ... bronze swords could not longer compete and went out of use completely. This seems likely to have occurred all over China by the late third century B.C. at the latest."[65] Wootz steel was "being exported from India to China at least as early as the +5th century. … good steel was manufactured in China by remarkably modern methods at least from that time onwards also."[66] First high-quality steel 450 CE.

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ "The elite troops in the state of Wei had to ... strap a spear to their backs and a sword by their waists ..."[67] - I would infer thrown spear because it was short enough and light enough to be carried on the back, and because the soldier carried a sword for close-quarter combat.
♠ Atlatl ♣ inferred absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the Zhou period, when: "The conscripted foot soldiers wore sheepskin jackets and used slings and bows with bronze-tipped arrows."[68]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from presence of self bows from previous and subsequent polities in Middle Yellow River Valley.
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ However, seen as outdated technology: "It was to be the sword and crossbow, rather than the composite bow and dagger-axe, that decided the battles of the Warring States" [69]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ "Crossbows first appeared in Chu in the early fifth century BC and were in general use in the fourth century BC."[70] "By 340 B.C., they had adopted the crossbow..."[71]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ siege-warfare in this period seems to have not involved specialized equipment / technology, more brute force and trickery by besieging armies (cf. Tin-bor Hui 2005). However, "The Chinese traction trebuchet is at least as old as the siege crossbow and is also described in the Mo Zi writings." [72]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ {absent; present} ♥Mohist catapults used during the Warring States period, they were "based on the lever principle, which was already a known concept and in wide use as in the counterbalanced bucket." [73] Note: use of gravity makes it sling? "Of the date of the introduction of the counterweight trebuchet to China there can be no doubt. It occurred in 1272, during one of the greatest sieges of Chinese history, at Xiangyang, where the Mongols besieged the Southern Song for five years." [74]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the presence of war clubs in previous and subsequent polities in the Middle Yellow River Valley.
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ However, seen as outdated technology: "It was to be the sword and crossbow, rather than the composite bow and dagger-axe, that decided the battles of the Warring States" [75]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ [76]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ [77] "The elite troops in the state of Wei had to ... strap a spear to their backs and a sword by their waists ... "[78]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ [79] "The elite troops in the state of Wei had to ... strap a spear to their backs and a sword by their waists ... "[80]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the presence of polearms in previous and subsequent polities in the Middle Yellow River Valley.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ Never used in warfare. [81]
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ Used as pack animals. [82]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ [83]
♠ Camels ♣ inferred absent ♥ No report of camels introduced into the region during this period. Never used in warfare, besides as pack animals. [84]
♠ Elephants ♣ ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ [85] Helmets "sometimes made of iron" but mostly "leather strips tied with cords."[86]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ [87] "Traditional shields" first seen in the Warring States period.[88]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ [89] Armor and helmets were an important defence against crossbows.[90]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ [91]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the presence of limb protection in previous and subsequent polities in Middle Yellow River Valley. Armor and helmets were an important defence against crossbows.[92] NB: It is unclear which "Wei" polity the next quote references--it might be a much later one. "The elite troops in the state of Wei had to wear heavy armor and helmets"[93]
♠ Chainmail ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred present ♥[94] "The elite troops in the state of Wei had to wear heavy armor and helmets"[95]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ [96] "The elite troops in the state of Wei had to wear heavy armor and helmets"[97]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ "Wei built a fortified town on the Qin-Wei border before launching campaigns against Qin."[98] increasing urbanization and large city-walls in this period linked with need for strategic defensive areas[99]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ [100] Defensive fortifications were common feature of all Warring States kingdoms, known from Qi, Wei, Zhao, and Yan in 4th c bce; likely Chu as well. Some stone, but most were built of stamped earth.[101]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ Was in use at the time, for example it was used against Wei in Kuei-ling Campaign by the Chao state[102]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ "The Ta Ming Wu Chieh chapters of the I Chou Shu ... mention several methods of attacking a city: mounding in the moat (yin) ... but the text probably dates from Warring States times."[103]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ Defensive fortifications were common feature of all Warring States kingdoms, known from Qi, Wei, Zhao, and Yan in 4th c bce; likely Chu as well. Some stone, but most were built of stamped earth.[104] Stone walls present in the Neolithic period [105]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ no evidence of mortar used as construction technique during this period
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ [106]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ during different stages of building, old walls of a city were often incorporated as ‘inner walls’ of new city, e.g. in ‘double cities’ like Xue. Not clear if this was always for defensive purposes, though[107]. It does seem clear that the multiple-wall system served to ‘protect’ the elite residences and palace structures from external invasion, whether military threat or social removal from non-ruling classes
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km. "States began building chains of watch stations and forts, often connecting them with long defensive walls. Permanent garrisons were left at strategic points to prevent the passage of armies. Barriers also allowed states to check those who entered or left their territories and to collect transit taxes from merchants."[108] NB: The following quote refers to a much later polity. "The Northern Wei built a defense line over 2,000 li long in 423 to resist the Jou-jan, and in 446, one hundred thousand men were put to work building defenses." (A li is half a km) [109]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ absent ♥ [110]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ absent ♥ [111]
♠ Impeachment ♣ inferred present ♥ Abdication begins in the Warring States period: kings should abdicate to someone who has more confidence such as a prime minister. [112]

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥rulers during this period not treated as gods, but certainly were legitimated by divine authority, uphold traditional worship (ancestor cult and appeasing Di) [113]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ this became a feature only during the imperial period, with the first Emperor Shi Huangdi taking the title of di (supreme divine being) [114] You don’t usually talk about rulers as gods in Chinese. If we define deities as those who are worshipped ‒ the Chinese emperor receives respect but he does not receive sacrifice.[115]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ [116] Confucian traditions stressed the need for rulers to govern for the sake and benefit of the governed people[117] [118] [119] But no sense of equality between groups

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ [120]no sense in any major Chinese religious tradition of any strong aversion to social hierarchy
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ elites definitely had privilages separate from 'commoners' [121]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ inferred absent ♥ introduced later, during growth of Confucian / Buddhist ideals [122]

♠ production of public goods ♣ absent ♥ Differences in rank and status was rigidly observed, including in the bestowal of benefactions, which meant that the enjoyment of gifts was largely restricted to particular groups. cf. Lewis 2009 and 2014.

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [123] [124] [125]

References

  1. (Tin-bor Hui 2005, 85) Tin-bor Hui, Victoria. 2005. War and State Formation in Ancient China and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press.
  2. (Tin-bor Hui 2005)
  3. (Tin-bor Hui 2005, 85) Tin-bor Hui, Victoria. 2005. War and State Formation in Ancient China and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press.
  4. (Tin-bor Hui 2005, 88) Tin-bor Hui, Victoria. 2005. War and State Formation in Ancient China and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press.
  5. (Tin-bor Hui 2005, n100 88) Tin-bor Hui, Victoria. 2005. War and State Formation in Ancient China and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press.
  6. (Encyclopedia Britannica n.d.) “Warring States.” Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/event/Warring-States. Accessed June 6, 2017. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/UFB8K653.
  7. (Roberts 1999, 14) Roberts, John A.G. 1999. A History of China. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/H9D8H5E9.
  8. (Roberts 1999, 14) Roberts, John A.G. 1999. A History of China. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/H9D8H5E9.
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