CnWZhou

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Jill Levine ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Western Zhou ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Zhou Dynasty; Chou Dynasty; Zhou; Chou ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 950-925 BCE ♥

957 BCE

In the 10th Century King Mu made expeditions into Central Asia. After Mu, authority over vassals declined. [1] There also was a widespread insurrection against Mu.[2]
The reign of Mu's predecesser, Zhao, "occurred at a point when the Zhou Dynasty had expanded across the central plains of China and turned its attention to South China." He established "the limit of direct control of the south during the Western Zhou Dynasty." This quote is from wikipedia.

However, bureaucratization of government after 957 BCE in response to defeat. Perhaps 950-925 BCE period?

827 or 825 - 782 BCE. "King Xuan's lengthy reign of forty-six years is traditionally regarded as something of a restoration."[3]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1122-771 BCE ♥

Periodization: 1122-957 BCE; 957-771 BCE.

Before 957 BCE state reached peak in extent. In 957 BCE there was a major military disaster.
"Achaeological finds attest to what appears to have been a major ritual reform (if not indeed a "cultural revolution"), which may have taken place during the reign of Mu Wang (traditional dates 1001-946; actual dates probably ca. one-half century later. ... assemblages of bronzes in tombs and hoards suggest that the classical Zhou sumptuary system, with its matching sets of ding and gui, originated at that time, indicating a significant reorganization (or at least standardization) of aristocratic society. Art historians have long noted the significant changes in bronze decoration styles in mid-Western Zhou times: the animal derived iconography of earlier times was replaced by more abstract patterns, and the shapes of ritual vessels changed considerably. Given the importance of bronzes in Zhou ritual, such a thorough revamping of the ritual apparatus is likely to bespeak changes in religious ideology."[4]
This disaster appears to have lead to reform of central government and military and increased bureaucratization. King Xuan's reign c825-782 BCE which is thought of as a restoration would be the peak of the second period.


Start of polity

1122 CE

Conquest of Shang

battle of Muye 1045 BCE [5]

Son of last Shang Empire ruler became a vassal of Zhou King Wu. On Wu's death there was a period of elite conflict.[6]

Duke of Zhou took control and "effectively founded" the Zhou state. Suppressed rebellion. Created state institutions. [7]

After King Mu, royal control over vassals declined and by 8th century Western Zhou's borders were "suspect." 771 BCE capital Hao was overrun by a non-Chinese/Chinese alliance. Last monarch: King You. [8]


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ loose; unitary state ♥ loose 1122-1045 BCE; unitary state: 1045-957 BCE; loose: 957-771 BCE Henry Maspero (1927) argued Zhou state was a "loose federation of vassal states" however this view has since been challenged. Herrlee G. Creel presented evidence Zhou was empire with a centralized government. [9]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance; vassalage ♥

alliance

"inscription documents a joint military campaign between the state of Jin and the Zhou court against a people called Suyi".[10]


Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Late Shang ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ elite migration ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Zhou Kingdom ♥ spring/autumn period continuation of (smaller) kingdom of Zhou
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Hao; Zhongzhou ♥ Capital Zhongzhou.[11] "For 275 years the Zhou royal court was able to sustain itself at a single capital, longer than any other dynasty would be able to do for the rest of Chinese history."[12]

was Hao capital before conquest of Shang?

Duke of Zhou established a new capital near Luoyang. The old Zhou capital near Xi'an remained the based for Zhou administration. [13] Administrative capital near Xi'an is Hao. Capital near Luoyang is Zhengzhou. Capital moved to Luoyang after 771 BCE (in period following Western Zhou) because Hao overrun by invaders. [14] Capital (Hao) in Zhou heartland, Wei river valley. During the Eastern Zhou the capital was moved to Luoyang. [15][16]

♠ Language ♣ Chinese ♥ Sinitic language family.

General Description

The Western Zhou Dynasty was the first Chinese state to claim the Mandate of Heaven, the divinely bestowed right to rule. Zhou was a tributary state to Shang until the Zhou king Zhou Wu Wang defeated the last king of Shang in the 1046 BCE Battle of Muye.[17] Zhou power was consolidated after the Duke of Zhou's defeat of the Rebellion of the Three Guards, led by Shang loyalists and separatist eastern nobles.[18] In defeating the rebellion, the Zhou state was able to add a large area of land in eastern China to its territory.[19]
The Western Zhou established their capital at Haojing, and the Duke of Zhou later established Chengzhou as a second capital.[20] In 957 BCE, the Zhou controlled territory covering an estimated 850,000 square kilometres based in the central plains of China.
The period was peaceful for the first 75 years of Zhou rule.[21] However, the decentralization of Zhou power into fiefdoms encouraged turmoil between states, popular unrest, and vassal rebellions.[22] The Marquess of Shen sacked Haojing and killed the 12th Zhou king over a succession dispute in 771 BCE.[23] The crown prince subsequently moved the capital to Luoyang and founded the Eastern Zhou dynasty.
The Western Zhou are noted for their introduction of the Mandate of Heaven, their kinship-based feudal system and their use of lineage law.[24] The state's kinship-based feudal system encouraged the spread of Zhou writing, culture and identity.[25] Some scholars have seen Zhou lineage law, with its emphasis on 'lineage rituals, familial ethics, and beneficent rule', as an intellectual precursor of Confucianism.[26] The hierarchies, division of labour and meritocratic practices that emerged under the Western Zhou also helped lay the foundations for the introduction of bureaucracy.[27]

Population and political organization

The Western Zhou state was a proto-feudal monarchy in which feudal lords were supported by an extended family network.[28] The first king of Zhou introduced the fengjian system, which made military leaders and members of the royal family into regional lords ruling over parcels of land.[29] These fiefdoms were then divided into smaller units and distributed to members of the local rulers' families.[30]
Individual fiefdoms had their own taxes, legal systems, and currencies but paid dues to the king and provided soldiers in times of need.[31] This system eventually led to decentralization and the weakening of Zhou rule.[32]
It is difficult to obtain population figures for the Western Zhou period. C. K. Maisels has given an estimate of 13.5 million people in 800 BCE.[33]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 850,000: 1100 BCE; 850,000: 1000 BCE; 850,000: 900 BCE; 850,000: 800 BCE ♥ KM2.

850,000: 1100 BCE; 850,000: 1000 BCE; 850,000: 900 BCE; 850,000: 800 BCE

850,000: 957 BCE. Peak territorial extent King Zhao of Zhou c955-977 BCE. Western Zhou controlled central plains of China and reached its limit of control to the south. The figure reflects the extent of the typical map of the Western Zhou.

"... little of no evidence of any sustained Zhou occupation of the Yangzi River valley."[34]


♠ Polity Population ♣ [9,000,000-12,000,000]: 1045-957 BCE; 13,500,000: 956-795 BCE ♥ People.

100,000: 1122 BCE; 5,000,000: 1045; [9,000,000-12,000,000]: 957 BCE; 13,500,000: 771 BCE

McEvedy and Jones (1979) say after the Shang Empire population actually increased quickly so that by 400 BCE the figure for a definition of China - that included parts outside the Western Zhou - was 25 million. Their implied figure for the Shang Empire in 1045 BCE was 5 million. [35]

Maisels suggests 13.5 million for Western Zhou. [36]

Relevant page in Maisel's book not now accessible via google books so cannot check for date. If figure was at peak, i.e. c950 BCE, that would be a jump of 8m in 100 years from 5m in 1045 BCE. Seems high even for territorial acquisitions. Perhaps 13.5 million reflects 771 BCE.

Have instead coded a range for the population at the the peak date between the beginning and end figures.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 100,000: 1045-901 BCE; 125,000: 900-795 BCE ♥ People. Haoqing. [37]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 5 ♥

1. Capital (homeland).
2. Capital (eastern lands).
3. Vassal strongholds.
4. Towns.
5. Villages.

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [4-5] ♥

1. King

"Under the hierarchical clan system, the King of Zhou was also the head of Zhou Family, thus, the imperial and the clan power were integrated with each other, the imperial family and the state were closely related, and the grade of the ranks in clans paralleled those in politics. As a result the pyramids-shaped political ranks were developed, within which "the king makes the duke his servant; the duke the senior officials; the senior officials the junior officials" ..."[38]
2. zai (intendants), shanfu (provisioners), shi (scribes)
"At court affairs zai (intendants), and shanfu (provisioners) "took out and brought in" (chu na) the king's commands."[39] Court scribes called shi.[40]


_Central government_

2. Prime Minister
Many scholars argue Western Zhou government had a Secretariat.[41]
"King Wen of Zhou appointed Jiang Shang as prime minister."[42]
"Moreover, an un-earthed mid-Western Zhou bronze vessel (mugui) also contained inscriptions which recorded that the king was worried about corruption and abuse of power by his officials and, therefore, appointed a person named Mu to take charge of the censorial duty. This could be the forerunner of the censorial system fully developed in the Han bureaucracy."[43]
3. Supervisor of Land.[44]
3. Supervisor of the Horse
c950 BCE "In place of the generic early Western Zhou hou, or regional "lords," the most powerful figures came to be the Three Supervisors (can you si), the Supervisor of the Horse (sima), the Supervisor of Lands (situ), and Supervisor of Works (si gong)".[45]
3. Supervisor of Works
"By the mid-Western Zhou era, the Zhou government administration consisted of three separated functional divisions: royal household, civil administration, and military."[46]
4. Official who managed roads within ministry of works inferred level
"As early as the Shang period, roads were controlled by a special official, and in the Zhou period, traffic had reached such proportions that regulations were introduced for particularly crowded crossroads and reckless driving was prohibited. ... they are said to have put roads into five categories: pedestrian roads for people and pack animals, roads for handcarts, roads for single carts, roads on which two carts could pass, and main roads wide enough to take three vehicles abreast."[47]
5. Scribe under the official who managed roads, within the ministry of works inferred level
5. on site road works manager inferred level


_ Provincial line_

appears to be room for a higher provincial level - did such exist?

2. 170 units, members of Zhou nobility as regional rulers
"It is said that when the Zhou dynasty was established around 1000 BC, about 1800 political units, referred to as states by some scholars, paid allegiance to the Zhou king. We may assume that these were mainly tribal units, clans, and federations of local units ruled by their chiefs and elders. In some cases warriors had established themselves as nobles and as commanders of garrison towns, which were at most fortified places like Panlongchang described above. Upon this agglomeration of small units the Zhou imposed their feudal system. About 170 units were formed with members of the Zhou nobility as the regional rulers, combining up to several dozens of the older units into new ones."[48]
3. units such as garrison towns, tribes, clans, federations of units
4. local headman

Note on periodization

"In short, the archaeological excavations suggest that while the Zhou elite in the east enjoyed a highly identical bronze culture identical to that which is found in the Wei Valley, the pottery workshops on the eastern plain continued to produce old types of pottery according to local standards that had their origin in the Shang. ... from the very beginning the Western Zhou state faced a west-east division that emerged as the result of the Zhou conquest. ... the situation began to change some time during the mid-Western Zhou when the Zhou pottery types were gradually introduced to the eastern plain. ... The complete merging of the two pottery tradtions during the late Western Zhou reflects the eventual integration of the two regions, guided by a unified elite culture introduced soon after the Zhou conquest."[49]
2. Fiefdoms
Aristocrats given fiefdoms in exchange for loyalty, tribute and aid to a king. This feudal system is referred to as fengjian.[50] A poem in the Shijing that refers to this period reads: "no land is not the king's land" and "there are none who are not the king's servants." Aristocrats also helped run a central government bureaucracy, originally created by the Duke of Zhou (with some inheritance from Shang as Shang officials were found employment). They were obliged to attend court, and supply manpower for military operations and construction projects.
3. Mini-kingdoms
Aristocrats further sub-divided their domains among their own relatives, officials and courtiers based on oaths of allegiance (mini-kingdoms). However, the feudal relationship with the center was not an "abstract concept", as they usually rested on kinship ties, such as a marriage. Thus the realm of the Western Zhou was an "extended household." However, by 771 BCE these kinship links were breaking down. [51][52] The aristocratic system had a hierarchy of noble titles: gong (duke), hou (marquis), bo (earl), zi (viscount), nan (baron). By the 8th century BCE, at least 100 small states were in existence. Each had a walled capital, surrounded by a ring of farm land, which in turn was surrounded by barbarians. [53][54]

Bureaucracy has multiple levels of "scribes"?

"Li is also able to find that, as the Western Zhou government developed, fewer and fewer official appointments were hereditary in nature. It became a routine that the appointees started their careers very young at junior levels, and then followed a lengthy path of promotion across various government divisions (experiences in the military being a plus), and finally to the top of government. The lengthy and in some cases complicated paths show that the Western Zhou government was hierarchical with layered ranks of officials."[55]

♠ Religious levels ♣ [2-3] ♥

_State cult_

1. King

King's title "Son of Heaven" gave him sole right to perform sacrifices and rituals related to agriculture and seasons.[56]
Claimed descent from Hougi: "he who rules the millet." [57]
Sacrifices could only be made by male family members.[58]
2. Ritual specialist
3. ?


_Ancestor worship_

Peasants worshipped their own gods.[59]


♠ Military levels ♣ [5-7] ♥

1. King

2. Dukes and Princes
3. Generals for each of the Six Armies and Eight Yin Armies: Under the Western Zhou (about 1027-770 BC), the feudal lords each had armies of one to three jun, while the kings had at least 14, the Six Armies and the Eight Yin Armies. The strength of a jun is not certain, but a later commentator put it at 12,500 men."[60]
4. level for c1000 men? inferred level: Western Zhou had a military aristocracy and a ritual code of honour (like chivalry).[61]
5. level for c100 men? inferred level: Lesser military officer called shi (captain).[62]
6. level for c10 men? inferred level
7. Individual soldier

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ unknown ♥ According to Herrlee G. Creel, "functional" military officials. [63] However, there may be from the same pool of aristocrats-with-fiefs who run the administrative system.

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred present ♥

"the king owned six troops, the dukes or princes of a bigger state owned three, those of a medium size owned two, and those of a small size owned one."[64]

"Under the Western Zhou (about 1027-770 BC), the feudal lords each had armies of one to three jun, while the kings had at least 14, the Six Armies and the Eight Yin Armies. The strength of a jun is not certain, but a later commentator put it at 12,500 men."[65]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ "... it has also been suggested that, in the realm of literature, poems that were to be performed by a collective body of celebrants of the ancestral rites gave way to poems that were sung by ritual specialists before an audience."[66]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ Edward Shaughnessy and Li Feng both write that a bureaucratic government with full-time bureaucrats was present in the Western Zhou. Shaughnessy points to reforms in 950 CE that led to the "appointment of individuals - often without any apparent relationship to the king". [67] According to Li Feng, the Western Zhou central bureaucracy had two branches: the Ministry (卿事寮) and the Secretariat (太史寮). In the ministry, the three major positions (参有司) were the Supervisor of Land, Supervisor of Construction, and the Supervisor of Horses. The major positions in the Secretariat were the Scribe (史), Invocator (祝), and the Document Maker (作册). The Royal Household was a separate independent system headed by Zai (宰), and the Six Armies and Eight Armies were another independent system. [68] A generic term for the Zhou government was the "hundred bureaus".[69] "Li is also able to find that, as the Western Zhou government developed, fewer and fewer official appointments were hereditary in nature It became a routine that the appointees started their careers very young at junior levels, and then followed a lengthy path of promotion across various government divisions (experiences in the military being a plus), and finally to the top of government. The lengthy and in some cases complicated paths show that the Western Zhou government was hierarchical with layered ranks of officials."[70]

According to Herrlee G. Creel, centralized government with administrative system run by non-professional bureaucrats who had fiefdoms. [71] Li Feng argues that Creel's hypothesis lacks sufficient evidence. [72]

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Before the Northern Sung, the principal means of entry into the social and political elite was by official recommendation or kinship relations." [73]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred present ♥

present

"In two recent studies, I have shown in detail that not only were some bureaucratic rules developed in the way the central administrative body was divided during the Western Zhou, but the selection and promotion of officials for higher services also seem to have followed some bureaucratic rules."[74]
"Also, as Li has very convincingly argued, if such a lengthy and slow upward path "had been the normal pattern of promotion, experience and personal performance would have been considered very important factors in the government service of the Western Zhou."[75]
"King Wen of Zhou appointed Jiang Shang as prime minister. He would go on to become the most meritorious minister from the Zhou Dynasty. These occasional examples of appointment by virtue and quality still could not break the basic principle of the hereditary system."[76]

absent

"The official positions of the Zhou bureaucracy were only open to descendants of the aristocracy."[77] - however, the meritocracy was present within the lineage system.

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Royal archives.[78] A generic term for the Zhou government was the "hundred bureaus".[79] Li Feng argues that gong 宫 may have served as locations for "official functions" related to palaces and temples [80]

"Western Zhou royal house also kept sizeable territory around the capital region under its direct control. By the mid-Zhou period, some bureaucratic structures had developed in this royal domain."[81]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Had a system of justice but no law code survives. Legal procedures existed because we know theft was punished.[82]

"In terms of legal systems, its implement and practical application in the dynasties of Xia, Shang and Zhou had all centered on the will of the monarchs. As a result, the law was overtopped by the imperial power, and both law and punishment were made by the rulers. For example, the law of the Xia Dynasty was generously referred to as Yu Xing (The Penal Code of Yu), which was named after the emperor.""The law of Shang Dynasty was generously named "Tang Xing" (The Penal Code of Tang)." [83]

"The evolution of China's customary law into codified law occurred during the Warring States Period (770 BCE to 256 BCE). During that period successive warlords would each codify and publish their own sets of laws according to the needs of society."[84]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ Chief justice was the king.[85] "During the period of Western Zhou Dynasty, the rulers were in fact also the supreme arbiters dealing with the legal disputes between the states.[86]

"With the development of the state machine of the Zhou dynasty, under the leadership of the monarch, the central judicial organizations headed by "Si Kou" (the minister of justice) and "Shi Shi" (the official in charge of criminal affairs) were established, and the local judicial organizations, named "Xiang Shi", "Sui Shi", "Xian Shi", "Fang Shi", and "Ya Shi", had also been set up to deal with the judicial affairs."[87]

"In the late Western Zhou and Spring and Autumn periods, several inscriptions record decisions in legal cases, most commonly disputes over land."[88]

♠ Courts ♣ inferred present ♥

"With the development of the state machine of the Zhou dynasty, under the leadership of the monarch, the central judicial organizations headed by "Si Kou" (the minister of justice) and "Shi Shi" (the official in charge of criminal affairs) were established, and the local judicial organizations, named "Xiang Shi", "Sui Shi", "Xian Shi", "Fang Shi", and "Ya Shi", had also been set up to deal with the judicial affairs."[89]

"In the late Western Zhou and Spring and Autumn periods, several inscriptions record decisions in legal cases, most commonly disputes over land."[90] - where were trials held for legal cases?

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

"With the development of the state machine of the Zhou dynasty, under the leadership of the monarch, the central judicial organizations headed by "Si Kou" (the minister of justice) and "Shi Shi" (the official in charge of criminal affairs) were established, and the local judicial organizations, named "Xiang Shi", "Sui Shi", "Xian Shi", "Fang Shi", and "Ya Shi", had also been set up to deal with the judicial affairs."[91]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Developed in Yellow River basin after Shang. [92]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ "During the Western Zhou Dynasty, handicrafts and commerce came under government monopoly, and a system was instituted whereby craftsmen and merchants ceased to be household retainers and became government subjects."[93] "It was not until the Western Zhou period (1027-771 bc) that professional merchants emerged, mainly to serve feudal aristocrats by supplying them with the desired commodities. Only in the Spring and Autumn (770-403 BC) and the Warring States period (403-211 BC), when agricultural technology was much improved, did households retain sufficient surpluses that professional merchants found it profitable to serve the ordinary people (Sa 1966:29)"[94] "During the Zhou dynasty (1134-256 BC) onward, merchants' guilds based on family relationships came into being in China (Chuan 1978)."[95] However, before the Sui and Tang, "merchants could open stores only in restricted locations, and merchant guilds were localized."[96]
♠ food storage sites ♣ ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ "As early as the Shang period, roads were controlled by a special official, and in the Zhou period, traffic had reached such proportions that regulations were introduced for particularly crowded crossroads and reckless driving was prohibited. ... they are said to have put roads into five categories: pedestrian roads for people and pack animals, roads for handcarts, roads for single carts, roads on which two carts could pass, and main roads wide enough to take three vehicles abreast."[97]
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred present ♥ "As early as the Shang period, roads were controlled by a special official, and in the Zhou period, traffic had reached such proportions that regulations were introduced for particularly crowded crossroads and reckless driving was prohibited."[98] Must have been stone or wooden bridges over rivers and streams.
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ [99]
♠ Ports ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Unknown. Did Eastern part of the Zhou realm trade with Korea or Japan, or by sea with other parts of China?

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥ Mining activity took place in the Western Zhou period.

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥ Unknown.
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ inferred present ♥ Oral history, images etc.
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ "everything done at court was put in writing: the investitures themselves, ... but also verdicts in legal cases, maps, and so forth."[100]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Inscriptions on vessels.[101] "The Shi Qiang pan (Figure 23) is one of the most important Western Zhou bronze vessels due to its 270 character long inscription. In two columns, it provides an outline of the first seven Western Zhou kings with a similar account of four generations from the Wei family [65]."[102]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ present ♥ Ancient Chinese language.
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Ancient Chinese language.

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ Government administration would have produced lists.
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred present ♥ Ritual calendar. Reference to a "ritual cycle".[103]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ "The origin of the character tian, “heaven,” is detectable in the records and decrees of the early Western Zhou."[104] Yijing (The Classic of Changes)[105] which was a book on divination, according to Shaughnessy possibly late 9th century BCE.[106]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Shanghsu (Book of Documents). Yi Zhoushu (Zhou documents). [107]
♠ History ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from abbreviated histories found on vessels: "The Shi Qiang pan (Figure 23) is one of the most important Western Zhou bronze vessels due to its 270 character long inscription. In two columns, it provides an outline of the first seven Western Zhou kings with a similar account of four generations from the Wei family [65]."[108]
♠ Philosophy ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Unknown. Philosophy in China is thought to have originated in Spring and Autumn period but philosophical works cannot be ruled out at earlier time, although this time certainly was not a "golden age" for philosophy.
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred present ♥ The Western Zhou mathematician known as Fu Zi Chen applied the coordinate method and the Euclidean distance function in making astronomical observations." [109]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Shijing (Book of Odes [Songs])[110]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Silk.[111] "Until late in the Spring and Autumn, cash was little used and taxes were in the form of rice, grain, or corvee labor. Marketplace transactions were by barter, and salaries of officials were paid in grain."[112]
♠ Tokens ♣ present ♥ Cowrie shells. [113]
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Unknown. could unprocessed gold dust or nuggets have been used in exchange in article trading? (the trading of a gold necklace would come under articles).
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred absent ♥ "All scholars agree that neither money nor a clear concept of private land ownership existed during the Western Zhou period."[114]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ inferred absent ♥ "All scholars agree that neither money nor a clear concept of private land ownership existed during the Western Zhou period."[115] "The earliest minted form of currency was the bu, a coin cast of bronze in the form of a miniature double-pronged digging stick or hoe, complete with hollow socket. They are particularly densely concentrated in the vicinity of the Eastern Zhou capital of Luoyang and in the states of Han, Zhao, and Wei."[116]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ Not until a later time. "All scholars agree that neither money nor a clear concept of private land ownership existed during the Western Zhou period."[117]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥ The Western Zhou government system would have required specialist couriers.
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred present ♥ From the Shang period roads considered important enough to be "controlled by a special official"[118] but references to post usually begin with the Qin's First Emperor who "constructed post roads across his empire".[119] However, Confucius (551-479 BCE) said: "News of good deeds travels faster than the mail"[120] which strongly implies a postal system was present at his time. One may infer from the importance of roads a basic postal system existed under the Western Zhou.
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥ Unlikely literacy was high enough for general postal service to be necessary.

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Jill Levine ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Required for bronze.
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Acquired from Shang. [121]
♠ Iron ♣ inferred absent ♥ Late Western Zhou. [122] Only produced in small quantities, mostly meteoric, not massed produced for Warfare until the Warring States (~500 BC). [123]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Not discovered at this time.

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Spears mentioned in relation to combat sound like handheld spears.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Unlikely, New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ In the Zhou period "The conscripted foot soldiers wore sheepskin jackets and used slings and bows with bronze-tipped arrows. By 340 B.C., they had adopted the crossbow..."[124]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ present but may not have been used in warfare - if the more powerful composite bow is the weapon referred to in the sources.
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ "bows (now only the bronze bow clamps exist), and arrows as shooting weapons"[125] "The advancement of bronze technology and the use of bronze weapons gave the Shang military great advantage over their enemies and completely changed the way they fought wars. They used newly-developed weapons like the bronze-tipped halberd and spear, the compound bow; and most importantly, they used horse-drawn chariots." [126]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ "Mounted warfare in Chinese armies began in the sixth century BCE, while the increasing projectile power of composite bows and especially the crossbow from the fifth century BCE led to the rise of heavy armour."[127]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥ According to Han dynasty era scholars Jia Kui and Xu Shen "something called a "hui" which was moved or activated by the King of Zhou against the Duke of Zheng in 707 B.C. They identified this as a catapult but because the word "hui" now no longer exists, we cannot be sure of their interpretation." [128]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ inferred absent ♥ first known use of gravity powered siege engine was under Byzantines, just under two thousand years after this period.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Gunpowder not present until a later period.
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Gunpowder not present until a later period.

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ spalling hammer.[129]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ yue battle-axe.[130]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Bronze daggers.[131]
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ "Yang Hong (1980: 116) traces the bronze sword back to certain bronze daggers of the Western Zhou period... It was not until the Eastern Zhou period that the bronze sword became a common weapon."[132] In the preceding Shang period, there were bronze swords[133] and a sword has been found as early as the Erligang Culture.[134] Even if not a commonly-used weapon, if it existed it may have had specialist use
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ "A spear was also one of the combat weapons in the Western Zhou period, but it was not the principal one"[135] "The advancement of bronze technology and the use of bronze weapons gave the Shang military great advantage over their enemies and completely changed the way they fought wars. They used newly-developed weapons like the bronze-tipped halberd and spear, the compound bow; and most importantly, they used horse-drawn chariots." [136]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ Dagger-axe [137] Dagger-axes on poles.[138] Standard equipment for Western Zhou soldier included the dagger-axe.[139] ji halberd.[140]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ Never used in warfare. [141]
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ Used as pack animals. [142]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Good conditions for horse-breeding in the Zhou homeland.[143] The Zhou used chariots in battle drawn by four horses [144]
♠ Camels ♣ ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ Wood used as armour, e.g. for shields, unlikely to have been preserved.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ There is no evidence that the Zhou were armed differently than the Shang (evidence of helmets, shields, and leather armor used in the Shang) [145] "no major improvements can be proven until the early Chou, when more flexible corsets began to be fabricated by employing lamellar construction techniques that linked small leather panels together with hempen cord."[146] In the Zhou period "The conscripted foot soldiers wore sheepskin jackets"[147]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ As of 1992: "No complete Western Zhou shield has yet been unearthed, though several pieces of cast bronze shield ornaments have been discovered."[148] Standard equipment for Western Zhou soldier included the shield.[149]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Western Zhou used helmets.[150]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ Traditional view: "Mounted warfare in Chinese armies began in the sixth century BCE, while the increasing projectile power of composite bows and especially the crossbow from the fifth century BCE led to the rise of heavy armour."[151] However, there is evidence heavy armour existed in the Western Zhou: "... suit has yet been unearthed, but a bronze breastplate and two bronze backplates have been found in a Western Zhou ..."[152]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ In the Western Zhou period protective armour equipment existed in addition to helmets and shields.[153]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Mounted warfare in Chinese armies began in the sixth century BCE, while the increasing projectile power of composite bows and especially the crossbow from the fifth century BCE led to the rise of heavy armour."[154] In the Western Zhou period protective armour equipment existed in addition to helmets and shields.[155]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Mounted warfare in Chinese armies began in the sixth century BCE, while the increasing projectile power of composite bows and especially the crossbow from the fifth century BCE led to the rise of heavy armour."[156] In the Western Zhou period protective armour equipment existed in addition to helmets and shields.[157]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred present ♥ In the Western Zhou period protective armour equipment existed in addition to helmets and shields.[158] "more flexible corsets began to be fabricated by employing lamellar construction techniques that linked small leather panels together with hempen cord."[159]
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ Traditional view: "Mounted warfare in Chinese armies began in the sixth century BCE, while the increasing projectile power of composite bows and especially the crossbow from the fifth century BCE led to the rise of heavy armour."[160] However, there is evidence heavy armour existed in the Western Zhou: "... suit has yet been unearthed, but a bronze breastplate and two bronze backplates have been found in a Western Zhou ..."[161]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ "The first recorded use of ships in a military operation occurred circa 1045 B.C.E when King Wu of Zhou ferried 300 chariots and 3,000 men of his personal guard across the Yellow River at Menjin in forty-seven ships to attack the Shang capital. These were not specialized warships but vessels commandeered for the operation." [162]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥ "The first recorded use of ships in a military operation occurred circa 1045 B.C.E when King Wu of Zhou ferried 300 chariots and 3,000 men of his personal guard across the Yellow River at Menjin in forty-seven ships to attack the Shang capital. These were not specialized warships but vessels commandeered for the operation." [163]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "The first recorded use of ships in a military operation occurred circa 1045 B.C.E when King Wu of Zhou ferried 300 chariots and 3,000 men of his personal guard across the Yellow River at Menjin in forty-seven ships to attack the Shang capital. These were not specialized warships but vessels commandeered for the operation." [164] were these ships specialized military vessels?

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Cities or city-states had originated as Western Zhou military garrisons".[165] Were these in a defensive position, such as on a hilltop?
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ passing reference to a Chinese pictogram. unlikely to be preserved.
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Hang-tu earth walls still the dominant technology. "The number of cities with earth fortifications grew rapidly near the end of the Western Zhou."[166] Hang-tu earthern walls. "Large stones were usually piled as a foundation, then earth was rammed above it layer upon layer. Traces of wood, possibly the remains of round posts used to hold the wall in place, have been discovered there." Qi wall [167]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ Some towns in the late Shang and early Chou continued to employ nothing more than ditches long after massive fortifications had become commonplace" [168]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ Evidence of a moat at the Yan state capital during the Western Zhou period.[169]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ Stone walls present in the Neolithic period [170] Mortared or unmortared?
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Evidence of city-walls at the Yan state capital during the Western Zhou period.[171] What material was used here?
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥ camps built on campaigns unlikely to be preserved. are there any references to them in textual sources?
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ Zhou capital cities had "inner walled cities within outer walls." [172]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ Linear walls present during Western Zhou.[173]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ No gunpowder at this time.

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Jill Levine ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ inferred present ♥ "This government worked in an oligarchical way through most of the early Western Zhou as the power of policy-making rested in the hands of one or sometimes two dukes who were uncles or brothers of the reigning Zhou king, and who evidently had the Ministry under their control. It was this government guided by strong-willed dukes that managed the state affairs through the period of great early Western Zhou expansion." [174]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned by sources
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ [175]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ Mandate of Heaven [176]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ You don’t usually talk about rulers as gods in Chinese. If we define deities as those who are worshipped ‒ the Chinese emperor receives respect but he does not receive sacrifice.[177]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ [178]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ [179]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ elites definitely had privilages separate from 'commoners' [180]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [181] [182] [183]

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