CnTangE

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Jill Levine ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Early Tang Dynasty ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Li Dynasty; T'ang Empire ♥ "Li family" [1] T'ang Empire. [2]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 740 CE ♥

Xuanzong (712-756 CE): "longest reigning of all the T'ang monarchs ... restored his dynasty to a new peak of power after decades of usurpation, weakened authority and corruption. Through the Chinese living through the troubled and disturbed decades which followed his abdication, his reign represented a golden age of departed glories, an era of good government, peace and prosperity, equally successful at home and abroad."[3]

Reign of Li Shimin (Taizong) 627-649 CE was "the zenith of the T'ang dynasty... More than a century of internal peace followed Tai-tsung's reign..." [4] However the zenith of the T'ang dynasty might not mean the same thing as the zenith of the T'ang dynasty's polity.

During reign of Xuanzong (712-756 CE) "the Empire seemed - at least outwardly - to be more prosperous and stable than ever before. The increase in population was steady ... The wealth of the country was obvious ... and 'one could undertake a voyage within the empire for a distance of 10,000 li without being armed'. Thus, it seemed that the T'ang had reached a new pinnacle of glory. This is especially true if the period were to be regarded from the point of view of the arts, for it was precisely in this era that the greatest flourishing of T'ang culture took place."[5]

Xuanzong (712-756 CE): "it was not he who ruled during the latter period from about 740 but his Chancellor Li Lin fu (in office 736-752), who established himself an unchallenged master of the Empire."[6]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 617-763 CE ♥

"In 617, when it was obvious that the Sui were finished, Li Yuan marched on Ch'ang-an with an army of 200,000 which included many Turkish auxiliaries. In the subsequent year Li Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of the T'ang (Kao-tsu 618-626)."[7]

"The policies established at the outset of the T'ang era were followed, in general, during the long reign of T'ai-tsung's successor, Kao-tsung (650-683)."[8]

"In 712 Jui-tsung resigned in favour of his son who was to become the famous Emperor Hsuan-tsung (712-756). His long and eventful reign marks, in fact, a turning-point in the development of China and in the fate of the T'ang dynasty..." [9]

"In a long and costly campaign the T'ang succeeded in crushing the rebellion by 763. An Lu-shan himself had been killed earlier, in 757, by his own son. The son was, in turn, slain by Shih Ssu-ming who was then commander of all the rebel armies. Shih Ssu-ming, whose military ability was undoubted, suffered an identical fate and was subsequently murdered by his own son. Although ultimately defeated, the An Lu-shan rebellion revealed fully all the inherent weaknesses of the T'ang government. In effect, it broke its power, and while the dynasty lasted almost another century and a half it never recovered fully, in spite of the attempts made by some of the subsequent T'ang rulers, as for example Emperor Hsien-tsung (806-820), to restore a strong, centralized monarchy." [10]


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

"In evolving the forms of a new centralized government the T'ang based themselves on their predecessors, partially on the Sui but, in reality they reached back to the Han period. Their policy, however, differed in one very important respect from that of the Han: the establishment of semi-independent princedoms was not permitted and the entire country was ruled as one state and empire."[11]


♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Sui Dynasty ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuation ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Later Tang Dynasty ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ China ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ [5,000,000-6,000,000] ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Chang'an ♥


♠ Language ♣ Chinese ♥

General Description

The Tang Dynasty is widely considered a cultural and political high point of imperial China. The dynasty was founded by Li Yuan, the Duke of Tang, when the threat of insurrection forced the previous Sui dynasty court to flee from Luoyang, the capital, to Yangzhou. Li Yuan marched to Luoyang and seized the abandoned capital in 618 CE.[12] He became the first emperor of the Tang dynasty (r. 618-626 CE) and is posthumously known as Gaozu. Under the Early Tang Dynasty, the capital was moved from Chang'an to Luoyang.[13] We divide the Dynasty into an Early period (618-763 CE) and Late period (763-907 CE), separated by the decline in imperial authority and instability of experienced by the Tang in the 750s, culminating in the An Lushan rebellion to close out the Early period (755‒763 CE).
Under Early Tang leadership, China's territory expanded considerably. Conquered territories included large areas of Central Asia and northern Korea (Koguryō).[14] In later years, however, China pursued a defensive, non-expansionist policy towards groups on the steppe and frontier.[15]
The dynasty, also known as the Tang (T'ang) Empire or Li Dynasty, is famous for its poetry, literature, increased trade and general cosmopolitanism.[16] In 660 CE, Empress Wu became the first woman to rule China, first governing as a regent to her young son and later ruling as empress dowager and regent until her death in 705 CE.[17] Emperor Xuanzong's 44-year reign (712‒756 CE) ushered in a cultural and economic golden age, which declined as he aged and ended in rebellion and an overthrow of the dynasty.[18]

Population and political organization

Emperor Gaozu worked to restore control of the imperial government that had been established by the Sui Dynasty, and founded frontier garrisons controlled directly by the capital.[19] The Tang instituted the much discussed 'equal fields' system, in which land owned by the state was parcelled out in equal allotments to citizens in return for taxation. The Tang also minted many new coins in an attempt to stabilize the economy.[20]
The Early Tang imperial government was characterized by an emperor who theoretically had absolute power, but was often in practice overruled by ministers or regents.[21] The central government was headed by three chief ministers who ran the Imperial Chancellery, Imperial Secretariat, and the Department for State Affairs.[22] The government also included a large central and state bureaucracy, marked by the expanding use of merit examinations.[23]
The population of the Early Tang Dynasty is estimated at 37 million in 700 CE and increased to almost 53 million by 754 CE.[24] In the 8th century, there were an estimated 1 million people living in Chang'an.[25]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 6,225,000: 620 CE; 6,350,000: 630 CE; 6,475,000: 640 CE; 3,600,000: 650 CE; 4,900,000: 660 CE; 3,900,000: 670 CE; 4,400,000: 680 CE; 4,900,000: 690 CE; 5,067,000: 700 CE; 5,233,000: 710 CE; 5,400,000: 720 CE; 5,133,000: 730 CE; 4,867,000: 740 CE; 4,600,000: 750 CE; 4,100,000: 760 CE ♥ in squared kilometers. Contains some interpolated data. [26]


♠ Polity Population ♣ 37,000,000: 700 CE; 37,000,000: 705 CE; 41,400,000: 726 CE; 48,000,000: 740 CE; 52,800,000: 754 CE ♥ People.

37,000,000: 705 CE; 41,400,000: 726 CE; 48,000,000: 740 CE; 52,800,000: 754 CE. "of this, 75 per cent was still north of the Yangtse." [27]

AD: 37,000,000 inferred at 700 CE from the data available.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 1,000,000: 700-763 CE ♥ Inhabitants.

Chang'an in the 8th century "had a population of about one million, with perhaps another million living in its metropolitan area." [28]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 6 ♥ levels.

1. Capital: Chang'an 8th century - 1,000,000.[29]

2. Secondary Capitals
3. Large Cities: eg. Guangzhou 8th century - 200,000.[30]
4. Smaller towns (inferred)
5. Villages (inferred)
6. Hamlet (inferred)

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 7 ♥ levels.

1. Emperor

"whose power was, in theory, absolute." [31]

_Central government_

2. Hall of Administrative Affairs / Chief Ministers' office (from 723 CE)
Three chief ministers also called "Hall of Administrative Affairs (Cheng-shih t'ang)" an informal advisory group. [32]
from 723 CE became an official government organ "with a separate budget and seal" Chief Ministers' office (Chung-shu Men-hsia) [33]
2. Imperial Chancellery run by a Chief Minister
"it received reports, ratified nominations, controlled all the actions of the government" [34]
Hsuan-tsung (712-756 CE): "it was not he who ruled during the latter period from about 740 but his Chancellor Li Lin fu (in office 736-752), who established himself an unchallenged master of the Empire."[35]
heads of the three central ministries were "chief ministers" [36]
Chief Minister (tsai-hsiang), Chancellery (Men-hsia sheng) [37]
2. Imperial Secretariat run by a Chief Minister
"prepared and issued all the proclamations, edicts, etc." [38]
Chief Minister (tsai-hsiang), Secretariat (Chung-shu sheng). [39]
3? Board of Censors
"remained permanent from the T'ang on ... which had the duty of controlling and reporting on the actions of the officials."[40]
2. Department for State Affairs run by a Chief Minister
"supervised the six main executive ministries" [41]
Chief Minister (tsai-hsiang), Department of State Affairs (Shang-shu sheng) [42]
3. Ministry of Officials (1) / Finances (2) / Rites (3) / Army (4) / Justice (5) / Public Works (6)
4. Sub-official within ministry e.g. under the Minister of Public Works inferred
5. Lower-level official within specialization (roads or ditches etc.) inferred
6. On site manager of e.g. the road works inferred
7. On site laborer inferred
3? Nine Offices and Five Bureaus
controlled "special administrative fields and the affairs of the Imperial Court"
 ?. Coin mint (Supervisor)
government directly controlled minting of coins [43]
 ?. Coin mint worker
government directly controlled minting of coins [44]
2. Delegate of Court Assembly
"Each prefecture (chou) sent a representative to a special assembly held in the presence of the emperor. While in the capital they were lodged in special quarters in the south-east part of the city. The assemblies were held on the fifteenth of the second, seventh and tenth moons. We know more about the function of the system under the T'ang, which held such assembles annually. The T'ang delegates were generally prefects or other ranking officials who were expected to bring to the capital their candidates for the official examinations plus tribute gifts for the emperor. An examination into the performance of the local officials in each local unit was held, and this was followed by an audience."[45]

_Provincial government_

2. Civil inspecting commissioner (from 733 CE) (previously Circuits)
"The T'ang reconstructed the administration of the country by creating ten large circuits (later raised to fifteen)..." [46]
ts'ai fang ch'u-chih shih "were appointed in each of the fifteen new provinces (tao) into which the empire was divided."[47]
"in the years down to the rebellion the provincial inspectors tended to exercise more and more active authority over the prefectures and counties under their jurisdiction."[48]
"a permanent level of authority intermediate between central government and individual prefectures." However, they were purely advisory and inspection and had no executive powers or civil jurisdiction. "They should not, therefore, be thought of as constituting an additional provincial level of administration."[49]
2. Prefectures (chou)
"the country was further divided into prefectures, chou (over 350) [50]
"the emperor made the selection of prefects his personal responsibility."[51]
3. Head of provincial treasury
Merchants could redeem feiqian documents at provincial treasuries.[52]
4. Sub-manager in provincial treasury inferred
5. Level in provincial treasury inferred
6. Level in provincial treasury inferred
3. Counties (hsien)
"and these in turn into around 1500 countries (hsien) [53]
"The really basic form of government, the only level with which the great majority of the population had any contact, was the county under the rule of a magistrate. This was also the lowest level at which the central bureaucracy functioned." [54]
4. Districts (hsiang)
"while at the bottom were the districts (hsiang), around 16,000 in number. [55]
5. Elders
In Guangzhou "The foreigners lived in a prescribed quarter of the city, were ruled over by specially designated elders, and enjoyed some extraterritorial privileges." [56]
2. Military governors (from early 8th century)
"the new standing armies required a new command structure which provided for the relatively independent operation of these armies over broad, designated frontier zones."[57]
chieh-tu shih commanded a fan- or fang-chen. the position replaced the temporarily appointed commander, the protector-general and the governor-general. [58]
"In addition to his military responsibilities the new military governor also held broad civil power over local administration, finance and supply."[59]
"By 763 the provinces controlled by military (chieh-tu shih) and civil (kuan-ch'a shih) governors had formed a permanent tier of authority throughout the empire, interposed between central government and the old prefectures and counties. These provinces developed forms of autonomy and semi-autonomy..."[60]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

1. Emperor

2. Ritual Specialists (inferred)
3. Monk/Priest/Nun

Emperor Taizong: "637 ... he ordered that henceforth at all ceremonies Daoist monks and nuns would take precedence over their Buddhist counterparts."[61]

"At about the same time he approved the Daoseng ge, the Regulations Regarding the Daoist and Buddhist Clergies, which provided harsh punishments for clergy committing various offences. His objective was to reduce the participation of Buddist clergy in secular life and to confine monks and nuns to their monasteries where they would be occupied with religious observances. By so doing he sought to establish control over the Buddhist church."[62]

Empress Wu: "... Buddhism reached the apogee of its economic and political might during her reign. The Buddhist monasteries were the repositories for much capital, the owners of vast quantities of metal (primarily copper, mostly in the form of statues) and were thus able to control the money market. They were probably also the greatest single group of landowners in the entire country. On the whole, the Buddhists were able to maintain this dominant position for the next century and a half."[63]

"Taoism the personal religious creed of all the later T'ang emperors."[64]

♠ Military levels ♣ 8 ♥ levels.

1. Emperor

2. Ministry of Army
3. Highest ranks
4. Unit level rank (800-1,200 men)
5. t'uan (200 men)
6. tui (50 men)
7. huo (10 men)
8. Individual soldier


Mercenary regular army replaced militia system in 722 CE. [65]

Military governors established by Hsuan-tsung (712-756 CE) in frontier areas. [66]

Maintained about 600 militia units of between 800-1,200 men. "While the Sui had subordinated these units to the local civil administration, the T'ang controlled them centrally, via a bureaucracy answerable to the ping-pu or Ministry of the Army. Units contained both cavalry and infantry, and were subdivided into t'uan of 200 men, tui of 50, and huo of 10." [67]

"Many of the peasants in areas of strategic importance were also obliged to serve in militia units for a specified period of time - usually one month in five. There were approximately 630 militia units, each of them theoretically composed of 1000 men. This system prevailed until almost the middle of the 8th century when it disintegrated, for a number of reasons, and was replaced by a standing army." [68]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ Officers were permanently employed, but the rank-and-file had to report to duty and training at the capital on a rotation system, depending upon how far away they lived." [69] Professional military officers. [70]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ absent: 617-737 CE; present: 737-763 CE ♥

Officers were permanently employed, but the rank-and-file had to report to duty and training at the capital on a rotation system, depending upon how far away they lived. ... the men supported themselves for most of the year by farming..." [71]

"From 737 it was decided to replace the militia entirely with paid chien-erh regulars; they were recruited by calling for volunteers from the population in general."[72]


♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ e.g. Buddhist, Manichean, Nestorian. "... begun during the Tang dynasty... The rise of religious professionals and soldiers as clearly separate groups was contrary to the previous normative view of society divided into knights (shi, the term that would later be applied to the literati or gentry), farmers, artisans and merchants."[73] -- need to check in which period of the Tang the "rise of religious professionals" occurred.

Professional priesthood was present in the pre-Tang era as well as the Tang era. [74]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ "The T'ang bureaucracy was not only enlarged but it also ceased ultimately to be the monopoly of the great families. Due to the steady development of the examination system and the expansion of education which was connected with this, the entry into officialdom was widened so as to include the majority of the landowning class."[75]

♠ Examination system ♣ present ♥ "The examination system was initiated in a partial form during the Han but had been in abeyance during practically all of the Period of Division. Under the Sui and T'ang it was taken up again and developed still further, reaching its full scope by the 8th century and becoming an important, although not the major, form for the recruiting of officials to the government bureaucracy. It should be noted, however, that the descendants of high officials had the right of entry into the register of officials without taking examinations."[76]

The examination system became more widespread during the Tang dynasty [77] Although, it was still somewhat limited in its use due to the aristocratic society of this period. [78]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ present ♥ "It is a fact that from the T'ang period on an ever-increasing proportion of officials was recruited from successful candidates at the examinations, that most of the political leaders for the next thirteen centuries did pass the examinations and were thus chosen on grounds of intellectual talent. It is also true that this system was less aristocratic than the recommendation on the basis of family standing which was used during the Period of Division."[79]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥

Coin mints,[80] the offices of the departments of state.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ "Whilst based on those of the preceding dynasties, the T'ang legal code was simplified in comparison with these and was supposedly less serve in its penal provisions, particularly when contrasted with some of the draconian measures which had been introduced by the Sui."[81]

Emperor Gaozu "set up a legal commission which, building on the Sui achievement, codified the law and administrative statutes in the form which was not only to remain in force until the fourteenth century, but which became the basis of the first legal codes in Vietnam, Korea and Japan."[82] Legal code compiled first in 624 CE. [83]

"Starting with the Northern Qi dynasty (550-77) the most serious unpardonable "Ten Evil Crimes" (shi eh) were formally entered in the law Beiqi Lu (Sui shu: ch. 25). These were also codified in the laws of the Sui and Tang dynasties, followed by all succeeding dynasties, and continued to be in effect until the twentieth century."[84]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ Supreme Court of Justice "reviewed the evidence relating to serious crimes and made recommendations to the emperor on the appropriate sentences." [85]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ Supreme Court of Justice "reviewed the evidence relating to serious crimes and made recommendations to the emperor on the appropriate sentences." [86]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred present ♥ Highly literate society that had a Supreme Court of Justice and codified law code.

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ "Besides the more well-known extensive irrigation works and man-made transport canals linking up the major rivers, the provision of water supplies to its cities formed the third important element of China's ancient water civilization."[87]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred present ♥ "Besides the more well-known extensive irrigation works and man-made transport canals linking up the major rivers, the provision of water supplies to its cities formed the third important element of China's ancient water civilization."[88] "Different from the Han Dynasty, the urban water supply of Chang'an City in the Sui-Tang Dynasties relied on mainly on canals and wells (Figure 8.4)."[89] The drinking water came from wells.[90]
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ Granaries existed under Sui.

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ "Around 750 CE, the ancient Chinese road system peaked at 40,000 kilometers".[91]
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ Built under Sui and maintained throughout Tang period.
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ "There were numerous colonies of foreign merchants not only in the capital itself but also in Yangchow, in Canton and in other ports on the south coast." [92] "Most of China's maritime trade passed through Guangzhou" [93]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ present ♥ The earliest known written documentation of the Chinese abacus dates to the 2nd century BC [94]
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Chinese
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ present ♥ Chinese
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Chinese

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ e.g. Bureaucratic use.
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ e.g. Bureaucratic use.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Buddhist texts of the Hua-yen got new translations. [95]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Buddhist literature, such as the translations of Chinese pilgrim Hsuan-tsang. Returned to China 645 CE from India with 675 books. "he is credited with rendering, with his associates, over 1300 works into Chinese." [96]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Travel-writing of Hsuan-tsang "Records of Travels in the Western Countries" (Hsi-yu Chi), "which is noted for its accuracy."[97]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ "...establishment of the History Office which was first set up for the purpose of writing the history of the five preceding dynasties and for the preparation and collection of materials for the elaboration of T'ang history as well."[98]
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Development of printing. "While the printing of books on a large scale dates only from the 10th century, the process must have originated much earlier, somewhere at the end of the 6th or the beginning of the 7th century."[99]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ "the 1707 edition of complete T'ang poetry includes 48,900 poems by 2,200 writers" [100] Li Po (701-762 CE) or Li T'ai-po "is often considered the most versatile of all the Chinese poets."[101] Tu Fu (12-770 CE). "Tu Fu had a deep understanding and awareness of the human suffering that surrounded him." [102] Wang Wei (701-761 CE) "who has been called by Waley the most classical of Chinese poets. ... equally famous as a painter, calligrapher and musician."[103] "The T'ang period also saw the appearance of a new form of literary creation - the short story. This originated already in the 6th century but the best examples date from the the middle of the 8th century and provide a vivid picture of T'ang society."[104]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Taxes paid in grain, silk etc. "As textiles were widely used in tax payments and public expenditure, they gained a status as the principle medium of exchange in the empire. [105]
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ Gold and silver objects [106]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Emperor Gaozu "introduced a new coinage, which was to become the standard currency through the Tang period."[107]
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred absent ♥ No true paper money, however merchants could carry "feiqian (literally, "flying money"), a government-issued document that was redeemable on presentation at any of the provincial treasuries."[108]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ "domestic trade which was stimulated also by improved communications, including a new postal system on the main trunk roads which emanated from the capital." [109]
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred present ♥ "domestic trade which was stimulated also by improved communications, including a new postal system on the main trunk roads which emanated from the capital." [110]
♠ General postal service ♣ present ♥ "domestic trade which was stimulated also by improved communications, including a new postal system on the main trunk roads which emanated from the capital." [111]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Jill Levine ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ There were thirteen types of armored suits designated as official army wear, made with a range of materials from copper and wood, to leather and cloth." [112] [113]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ [114]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Iron-tipped arrows [115] [116]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Wootz steel was "being exported from India to China at least as early as the +5th century. … good steel was manufactured in China by remarkably modern methods at least from that time onwards also."[117] First high-quality steel 450 CE.


Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred due to being present in Sui
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred absent ♥ Unlikely due to use of crossbows.
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Unlikely due to use of crossbows and composite bows.
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ "Infantry in the 6th and 7th centuries was divided into pu-pin, or marching infantry, armed with spears, and pu-she, or archers. The crossbow, the principal weapon of Han infantry, appears to have been less common in this period than the composite bow, although there are hints that it may have retained its importance in the south."[118]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ "Infantry in the 6th and 7th centuries was divided into pu-pin, or marching infantry, armed with spears, and pu-she, or archers. The crossbow, the principal weapon of Han infantry, appears to have been less common in this period than the composite bow, although there are hints that it may have retained its importance in the south."[119]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ "As in earlier periods, sophisticated siege equipment was available, including artillery, towers and rams."[120] Traction trebuchets. "A Tang dynasty description from 759 is very similar to that from Mo Zi, but includes references to ‘whirlwind trebuchets’ and ‘four-footed trebuchets’, two variations that are illustrated in the Wu Jing Zong Yao of 1044. The frame of the whirlwind trebuchet was a single vertical pole that could be rotated horizontally through 360 degrees, thus allowing a wide arc of fire for comparatively lightweight missiles. Another picture in the same source shows a whirlwind trebuchet mounted on a four-wheeled carriage, which would make it even more flexible."[121]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ {absent; present} ♥ "As in earlier periods, sophisticated siege equipment was available, including artillery, towers and rams."[122] "Of the date of the introduction of the counterweight trebuchet to China there can be no doubt. It occurred in 1272, during one of the greatest sieges of Chinese history, at Xiangyang, where the Mongols besieged the Southern Song for five years." [123]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Cannons and firearms first used by the Song. [124]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Cannons and firearms first used by the Song. [125]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ They could have used war clubs if they had wished.
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ They could have used battle axes if they had wished. Were present under the Sui.
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ Used in earlier polities
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Plate A illustrates Sui or Tang unarmoured infantryman with a sword.[126] Plate B illustrates Tang cavalrymen with sword.[127]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ "Infantry in the 6th and 7th centuries was divided into pu-pin, or marching infantry, armed with spears, and pu-she, or archers. The crossbow, the principal weapon of Han infantry, appears to have been less common in this period than the composite bow, although there are hints that it may have retained its importance in the south."[128] lance [129] "Dou Jiande was wounded with a lance thrust in the fighting at Hulao" [130]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ e.g. Halberd; "An 11th-century writer remarks that the T'ang had so little confidence in the crossbow that they equipped its users with the halberds for self-defence."[131]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ Never used in warfare. [132]
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ pack animals. The Intrepid Milita: "As such they functioned of defenders of the capitals. The government supplied them with pack mules or horses, provisions, armor, weapons, and tents." [133]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Cavalry [134]
♠ Camels ♣ ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ "There were thirteen types of armored suits designated as official army wear, made with a range of materials from copper and wood, to leather and cloth." [135]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ lacquered leather lamellae known from excavations at Miran on the Silk Road. [136]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ T'ang cavalry occasionally used a small round shield [137]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Plate B illustrates armoured Tang cavalrymen with head protection (or hair?).[138]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from previous polity
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Picture in text shows armor covering upper legs and arms. [139]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned by sources
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ "The scales were better designed for ease of movement." [140]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥ lamellar coat [141]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from previous polity

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ Based on earlier polities. River boats etc.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ inferred present ♥ "Supply ships." [142]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ 644 CE: "A great fleet of 500 ships was constructed," for Taizong's attack on Koguryo. [143]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Military colonies on the frontier.
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ Used in a battle by Tang troops in 756 against rebels led by An Lu-shan [144]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ "Engineers and laborers built walls by ramming thin layers of loose earth in wood frames to form the core of the ramparts. They then face them with brick and stone to prevent erosion by rain and constructed battlements on top to provide for their defense." [145]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ Up until the Tang and Song Dynasties wide ramparts and ditches were a typical part of the defense system for a fortified town or city.[146]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ In use in previous polities
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥ "Engineers and laborers built walls by ramming thin layers of loose earth in wood frames to form the core of the ramparts. They then face them with brick and stone to prevent erosion by rain and constructed battlements on top to provide for their defense." [147]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Engineers and laborers built walls by ramming thin layers of loose earth in wood frames to form the core of the ramparts. They then face them with brick and stone to prevent erosion by rain and constructed battlements on top to provide for their defense." [148]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ T'ang armies on campaign protected themselves whenever possible with elaborate fortified camps. [149]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ Up until the Tang and Song Dynasties wide ramparts and ditches were a typical part of the defense system for a fortified town or city.[150]
♠ Long walls ♣ 48 ♥ km. Emperor Xuanzong maintained an existing wall or built an additional wall about 48km long.

"The T'ang built no walls, nor did the Sung." [151]

♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Jill Levine ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ absent ♥ Constraint was informal. There were no formal constraints that could tie the hands of the emperors but ministers would ignore decrees or refuse to cooperate. “Decrees issued directly by the Emperor without the seals of the Imperial Secretariat and the Imperial Chancellery were considered to be extralegal. Subordinate departments were unlikely to recognize them. However, it was possible for a strong Emperor to make them stick…No list of specific written prohibition could tie the hands of the Emperor, though in practice how arbitrary an Emperor could be depended on many intangibles.” [152]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ absent ♥ Constraint was informal. On rulers, from noble lineages and ritual specialists, based on cosmological theories. [153] "No list of specific written prohibition could tie the hands of the Emperor, though in practice how arbitrary an Emperor could be depended on many intangibles.” [154]
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ "The T'ang bureaucracy was not only enlarged but it also ceased ultimately to be the monopoly of the great families. Due to the steady development of the examination system and the expansion of education which was connected with this, the entry into officialdom was widened so as to include the majority of the landowning class."[155] For Mandarins: “There were basically three ways to acquire such an office. First, a man could asset hereditary privilege. The sons of officials were eligible for appointment to a post one grade lower than the highest office that their fathers held…Second, he could receive a special appointment from the throne…Last, an aspirant for a bureaucratic position could sit for civil service examinations and receive a post if he passed them.” [156]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Jill Levine ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ Mandate of Heaven. [157]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ Rulers are divine figures, descendant from deified ancestor spirits, who became representative of / equated with di. [158] Puett points out, though, that the divine nature of the Emperor was something established through his ritual actions, not something he was 'born into'. " There is no claim that, for example, a given ruler was in fact born of Heaven rather than of human parents, or that the lineage of a given ruling dynasty has a closer biological link to Heaven than other lineages. On the contrary, the relations are always defined ex post facto—a ruler takes power and only then, through sacrifice, does he define his ancestral lineage as royal and does he define Heaven as his father."[159]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ [160]According to traditional Chinese ideology, dating back to the Han Dynasty, men who were well-versed in the Classics (i.e. scholars and state officials) were superior to other social groups - specifically, farmers, artesans, and merchants. However, it is worth noting that it was possible for farmers, artesans and merchants to become literate, and join the ranks of their social superiors. As for Confucianism, strictly speaking it only really promoted hierarchy within the family - there is no indication, in Confucian literature, that social elites are inherently superior to commoners. And all three main Chinese religions - Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism - required all social classes to follow the same moral code [161] For a slightly different viewpoint: "Confucianism emphasizes not only the domination of the head of state over his officials and subjects but also the domination of male over female, old over young, and officials over their subjects.[162]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ [163] Rulers are divine figures, descendant from deified ancestor spirits, who became representative of / equated with di. [164] Puett points out, though, that the divine nature of the Emperor was something established through his ritual actions, not something he was 'born into'. " There is no claim that, for example, a given ruler was in fact born of Heaven rather than of human parents, or that the lineage of a given ruling dynasty has a closer biological link to Heaven than other lineages. On the contrary, the relations are always defined ex post facto—a ruler takes power and only then, through sacrifice, does he define his ancestral lineage as royal and does he define Heaven as his father."[165]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ According to traditional Chinese ideology, dating back to the Han Dynasty, men who were well-versed in the Classics (i.e. scholars and state officials) were superior to other social groups - specifically, farmers, artesans, and merchants. However, it is worth noting that it was possible for farmers, artesans and merchants to become literate, and join the ranks of their social superiors. As for Confucianism, strictly speaking it only really promoted hierarchy within the family - there is no indication, in Confucian literature, that social elites are inherently superior to commoners. And all three main Chinese religions - Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism - required all social classes to follow the same moral code [166] For a slightly different viewpoint: "Confucianism emphasizes not only the domination of the head of state over his officials and subjects but also the domination of male over female, old over young, and officials over their subjects.[167]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ Buddhism reinforced the idea of prosociality, while Daoism and Confucianism focused on self-cultivation. Private donors: “The notion was that a gift could redeem sins committed in this life and therefore reduce or eliminate punishment in the afterlife.” Donors from all classes gave different types of property- land, mills, silk, slaves, coppers, and more. [168] “[Pierre-Sylvain] Regis claimed that Confucius’s basic message was charity, which was deemed universal and reasonable.” [169]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ In traditional Chinese ideology, it was seen as virtuous to build roads, bridges, etc. [170] Buddhism: “Leading a moral life is seen as having a wider social dimension as well. Establishing public parks, constructing bridges, digging wells and providing a residence for the homeless (see SN 1:1:47; similarly Jat 31) - all these are commended.” [171] Daoism (and, to a lesser extent, Confucianism): “The ‘’Taishang ganying pian’’ is a short anonymous tract (about 1,275 characters), probably composed in the second half of the Northern Song dynasty and traditionally regarded as the first and most paradigmatic morality book (*’’shansu’’). While closely associated with Taosim[...]the ‘’Ganying pian’’ also draws on sources beyond Taoism to present a message geared to a broad audience. [...] The earliest known edition of the ‘’Ganying pian’’ was transmitted with commentary by one Li Changling abou 1165. [...] To accumulate merit, fulfill vows, or perform a recognizably moral service, various eminent figures republished the ‘’Ganying pian’’ with commentaries. While Li Changling stressed the spirit of the Three Teachings (Confucianism, Taism, and Buddhism), scholar-officials like Zhen Dexiu (1178-1235), Hui Dong (1697-1758; ECCP 357-58) and Yu Yue (1821-1906; ECCP 944-45), among others, emphasized its Confucian morality for the masses. [...] As distribution of the ‘’Ganying pian’’, like all morality books, was thought to be a virtue that earned one merit, large and small donations toward its printing were conventional ways of doing good. It is still distributed free in many temples.” [172]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [173] [174] [175]

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