CnShang

From Seshat Data Browser
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Jill Levine ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Late Shang ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Anyang Period ♥ [1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1200 BCE ♥

According to Chinese historians, last King very corrupt, decadent. Empire extent had by this time reduced from its maximum 1200 BCE. It is unclear, though, if the polity extent actually shrank between Wu Ding and the last Kings, Di Yi and Di Xin, or if the reports of later historians are exaggerated for political effect.

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1250-1045 BCE ♥

Central plain "Longshan" culture c2000 BCE. Defeated Xia Kingdom c1766 BCE. [2]

31 Shang Emperors c1554-1045 BCE. [3]

1200-1040 BCE period best covered. [4]

Shang periodization[5]

Zhengzhou phase 1600-1400 BCE
Erligang culture 1500-1300 BCE
Anyang phase 1300-1100 BCE
Yinxu culture 1200-1050 BCE

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

"The Shang Dynasty was a monarchy governed by a series of kings, 29 or 30 in total, over the course of almost 600 years. The king was served by officials who held specialized positions of authority and function; and the officials belonged to a hereditary class of aristocrats, usually related to the king himself."[6]


♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ vassalage ♥ [7]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Erligang period ♥ "Historical tradition tells us that about 1500, a group from the Eastern region of the Yellow River Valley conquered the Xia and established China’s second dynasty, the Shang".[8]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ "Historical tradition tells us that about 1500, a group from the Eastern region of the Yellow River Valley conquered the Xia and established China’s second dynasty, the Shang".[9]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Western Zhou ♥ "The Shang was eventually conquered by one of these tribal members of its state, the Zhou tribe from Western China."[10]
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ China ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 1,000,000 ♥ km squared.
rough area of quasi-polity territory

♠ Capital ♣ Shang; Yin ♥ Note: Yin = Anyang. "While the king lived in and ruled from a capital city, it wasn't always the same city. Although historical records mention many different Shang capitals, only a few have actually been confirmed with archaeological evidence. No one knows exactly why a king would move the capital but some scholar think it had to do with internal power struggles within the royal family."[11] The first, Cheng Tang's capital, was at Shang (today near Zhengzhou).[12] The last was at Yin (today near Anyang).[13] Yin, also known as enclave at Xiaotun. This was a ceremonial and administrative centre[14] and was occupied by last 11 Kings [15] - or could be 12 kings; last king did not have burial pit.[16] - from about c1400 BCE. [17] The ancestral capital, as compared to the political capital above, never moved.[18]

♠ Language ♣ Chinese ♥

General Description

The Late Shang Dynasty (1250-1045 BCE) was an extension of the Erligang culture based in Yinxu, near modern Anyang. The Late Shang were the last 12 kings of the dynasty, beginning with Pan Geng. Unlike in Erligang settlements, pottery, oracle bones and other artefacts showing a fully formed writing system have been found at Late Shang sites. This system included 'pictograms, ideograms, and phonograms'.[19] The oldest written records uncovered from Shang contexts date back to 1200 BCE.[20]
The civilization at Yinxu is considered to represent the golden age of the Shang Dynasty[21] and 11 major royal tombs have been uncovered there by archaeologists.[22] Pottery and bronze and jade work flourished in the Late Shang period.[23] The Late Shang also had a developed calendar system with 30 days in a month and 12 months (360 days) in a year.[24]

Population and political organization

The Late Shang were based on the North China Plain. The dynasty's territory stretched north to modern Shandong, south to Hebei, and west to Henan.[25] The Shang government was a feudal system in which the king and a class of military nobility ruled over the masses, who were mainly farmers.[26] Shang kings also served as high priests.[27] The Late Shang were in constant conflict with surrounding settlements and with civilizations from the steppe.[28]
The population of the Late Shang Dynasty was around 5 million in 1045 BCE.[29] The population of the Yinxu settlement in Anyang is unknown.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 1,000,000 ♥ KM.

850,000: 1250 BCE; 1,000,600: 1200 BCE; 1,160,000: 1150 BCE; 1,050,000: 1100 BCE; 55,000: 1050 BCE [30]

Maximum extent reached no further than northern Henan, south-eastern Shanxi provinces of modern China.[31]

Core in Henan province "in a triangular area between the cities of Anyang, Luoyang, and Zhengzhou, the latter two which are on the Yellow River."[32]

♠ Polity Population ♣ 5,000,000 ♥ People. 5,000,000: 1045 BCE.[33]

3000 BCE about a million either side of lower Huang Ho (Longshan culture), plus 1 million food-gatherers elsewhere. In Shang period agricultural area extended 1 million KM, population had become 5 million people (6m total in China). [34]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 4,000 ♥ people.

Old capital at Zhengzhou, Ao. Aristocratic stronghold. Extended 7000 meters, enclosed 3.2 km. [35]

If population density 350 per urban hectare [36] and there's 11.2 hectares, about 4000.

Perimeter walls of the capital Anyang just 800 yards. [37]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3 ♥

1. Royal capital.
2. Aristocratic strongholds.
3. Village

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [4-5] ♥

"The Shang political system was organized into a hierarchy, meaning that it had many levels of rank and many specialized functions and jobs, all passed down within a noble family."[38]

The state had to "organize the mining of large quantities of ore for bronzework; wage military campaigns; construct city walls and palaces; or build elaborate tombs for themselves."[39]

1. King

_Central government_

2. Highest official in the administration
3. Official who over-saw mining activities and possibly also bronze workshops
3. Official for transport
"As early as the Shang period, roads were controlled by a special official"[40]
4. Bronze workshop manager inferred level
"Casting large objects was not easy; it required large crucibles and efficient furnaces. Casting some of the largest objects required coordinated melting in many crucibles similar to a modern factory."[41]
4. Mine manager inferred level
5. Bronze worker inferred level



_Provincial government_

2. Aristocratic leaders (local elite families).


Feudal state. Familial kingship: Elder brother - Younger brother, Father - Son. King ruled core lands.

King appointed officials. Government secretariate: Great Minister and Councillors. High officials to run palace affairs and feasts (included religious chroniclers and ceremonial specialists). Military officials.

Shang territory was not contiguous. Authority over outer regions closest to Anyang was delegated to aristocratic leaders who usually were linked to royal family through kinship ties. They supplied king manpower for military, tribute, workers for construction projects. Beyond aristocratic rulers were friendly tribal chieftains. [42][43]

Administration is used in a very loose sense, recognizing that officials, including local elite families ('local elite' probably more accurate than 'aristocratic') as well as members of the King's retinue in Anyang seem to have acted largely independently, contributing to the King's projects (including military campaigns, building, and religious activities) in order to participate in and to benefit from association with Anyang, rather than as dependents or non-elite officials directly controlled by the Kings.


♠ Religious levels ♣ 3 ♥

"The Shang worshipped the "Shang Di," who was the supreme god that ruled over the lesser gods of the sun, the moon, the wind, the rain, and other natural forces and places. They also worshipped their ancestors because they believed that although their ancestors lived in heaven after their death, they were still actively involved in the affairs of family and descendants."[44]

1.King.
2. Chief diviners.
3. Lesser diviners (e.g. scribes).

Theocracy. King considered god called Di's representative on earth. His responsibility was to ensure harmony between the "cosmic cycle of the seasons and the agricultural cycle of humanity."

Ritual functions included fixing the timetable for farming activities through divination. To help him he had colleges of soothsayers and scribes who carried out royal divination activities. Scapulimancy and plastromancy were practised.

Sacrifices were made to dead kings (ancestral worship cult) who were thought to be able to communicate with Di. [45][46][47] [48][49] [50][51]

♠ Military levels ♣ [4-5] ♥

"Chariots allowed commanders to supervise their troops efficiently and across great distances."[52]

1. King
2. General inferred level
3. Commander inferred level
4. Officer inferred level
5. Individual soldier

Chariot and infantry corps. [53]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present ♥ "Chariots allowed commanders to supervise their troops efficiently and across great distances."[54]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred present ♥ Garrisons in earlier period, and under the subsequent Zhou.

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ "The king or professional diviners hired by the king used oracle bones to make predictions about the future or to answer questions..."[55]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred present ♥

King appointed a government [56] and recorded official transactions. [57]

"The king was served by officials who held specialized positions of authority and function; and the officials belonged to a hereditary class of aristocrats, usually related to the king himself."[58]

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Before the Northern Sung, the principal means of entry into the social and political elite was by official recommendation or kinship relations." [59]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The officials belonged to a hereditary class of aristocrats, usually related to the king himself."[60]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ Government archive building for records.[61] "The king was served by officials who held specialized positions of authority and function"[62]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ absent ♥ Judging from the following quotes, it would seem that, prior to the Zhou, there was no difference between the law and the king's will.

"In terms of legal systems, its implement and practical application in the dynasties of Xia, Shang and Zhou had all centered on the will of the monarchs. As a result, the law was overtopped by the imperial power, and both law and punishment were made by the rulers. For example, the law of the Xia Dynasty was generously referred to as Yu Xing (The Penal Code of Yu), which was named after the emperor.""The law of Shang Dynasty was generously named "Tang Xing" (The Penal Code of Tang)." [63]

"The law of Shang Dynasty was generously named "Tang Xing" (The Penal Code of Tang)."[64]

"All the national activities, such as punitive expeditions, sacrifices, etc., were named "Wang Shi" (the king's affairs) to suggest that the king was the state, and that the king and the state were an organic whole. In the oracle inscriptions of the Shang Dynasty on tortoise shells or animal bones, the words like "Wang Ming" (the king's commands), "Wang Ling" (the king's orders), and "Wang Hu" (the king's words) can be found repeatedly, which had indicated that the national affairs were conducted according to the orders of king who not only had the supreme administrative and military power, but the supreme legislative and judicial power."[65]

"The evolution of China's customary law into codified law occurred during the Warring States Period (770 BCE to 256 BCE). During that period successive warlords would each codify and publish their own sets of laws according to the needs of society."[66] -- this variable requires that the law be written down. Customary law can be written down.

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥ The fact that there were no full-time, professional judges is suggested by the following: "In addition to the legislative power, the monarchs in ancient times were also endowed with the supreme judicial power." This is shown by readings of oracle bone text.[67]

inferred present: precursor to Zhou development?

"With the development of the state machine of the Zhou dynasty, under the leadership of the monarch, the central judicial organizations headed by "Si Kou" (the minister of justice) and "Shi Shi" (the official in charge of criminal affairs) were established, and the local judicial organizations, named "Xiang Shi", "Sui Shi", "Xian Shi", "Fang Shi", and "Ya Shi", had also been set up to deal with the judicial affairs."[68]

♠ Courts ♣ ♥ Unknown.

inferred present: precursor to Zhou development?

"With the development of the state machine of the Zhou dynasty, under the leadership of the monarch, the central judicial organizations headed by "Si Kou" (the minister of justice) and "Shi Shi" (the official in charge of criminal affairs) were established, and the local judicial organizations, named "Xiang Shi", "Sui Shi", "Xian Shi", "Fang Shi", and "Ya Shi", had also been set up to deal with the judicial affairs."[69]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥ Unknown.

Next period

"With the development of the state machine of the Zhou dynasty, under the leadership of the monarch, the central judicial organizations headed by "Si Kou" (the minister of justice) and "Shi Shi" (the official in charge of criminal affairs) were established, and the local judicial organizations, named "Xiang Shi", "Sui Shi", "Xian Shi", "Fang Shi", and "Ya Shi", had also been set up to deal with the judicial affairs."[70]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ During the Shang: "Progress in hydraulic technology allowed the creation of great systems of irrigation, increasing the productivity of cultures along the Yellow river."[71]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Pottery water pipes, Palace at Erlitou.[72]
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Unknown. Evidence for markets first found in the Western Zhou [73]
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ Storage pits, Palace at Erlitou. [74] Inferred present for a city or local community.

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ "As early as the Shang period, roads were controlled by a special official"[75]
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred present ♥ "As early as the Shang period, roads were controlled by a special official"[76] Must have been at least some small wooden or stone bridges over rivers and streams.
♠ Canals ♣ ♥ Unknown.
♠ Ports ♣ ♥ Unknown.

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ "An enormous mine (2 square kilometers) with smelting facilities roughly 3,000 years old was discovered on Mt. Verdigris [42]."[77]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ inferred present ♥ Oral histories, pictures, symbolic sculptures and monuments etc.
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ "Shang documents were originally recorded on strips of bamboo and silk that have long since decomposed".[78] Written records are preserved instead on non-perishable mediums. Most of what is known of Shang written on 107,000 "oracle" bones. [79][80]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Inscriptions on oracle bones [81].
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ present ♥ Chinese writing system originates from Shang period[82] and is non-phonetic.
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Chinese writing system originates from Shang period[83] and is non-phonetic.

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ The Shang had tablets[84] to write on so their bureaucracy would very likely compiled lists, such as for resources to acquire. They also wrote on perishable materials, such as bamboo and silk.[85]
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred present ♥ Accurate calendar.[86] 10-day week. [87] "“The day xin-hai” refers to the sixty day calendar cycle of the Shang (the same system which today gives us the Year of the Dragon, Horse..."[88] This would likely have existed in some form of document.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Unknown. The Shang had tablets[89] so it is not impossible a sacred text was written on a tablet. They also wrote on perishable materials, such as bamboo and silk.[90] We could infer the basic tenets of their religious beliefs concerning the Shang Di were written down.
♠ Religious literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Unknown. The Shang wrote on perishable materials, such as bamboo and silk.[91] We know "The kings communicated with their ancestors using oracle bones and made frequent sacrifices to them."[92] We could infer the method of interpreting the cracks in oracle bones would have been written down and even discussed.
♠ Practical literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Unknown. The Shang wrote on perishable materials, such as bamboo and silk.[93]
♠ History ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Unknown. The Shang wrote on perishable materials, such as bamboo and silk.[94]
♠ Philosophy ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Unknown. The Shang wrote on perishable materials, such as bamboo and silk.[95]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Unknown. The Shang wrote on perishable materials, such as bamboo and silk.[96] Astronomers identified Mars and some comets.[97] If these facts were written down with information on how other people could identify these astronomical bodies, this would constitute scientific literature.
♠ Fiction ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Unknown. The Shang wrote on perishable materials, such as bamboo and silk.[98]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥ Wealth measured in livestock, metal, crops and game. [99]
♠ Tokens ♣ present ♥ Cowrie shells. [100] Jade [101]
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥ Wealth measured in livestock, metal, crops and game. [102]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥ Coins evolved at a later time. Cowrie shells used at the time [103] Jade [104].
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ Coins evolved at a later time. Cowrie shells used at the time [105] Jade [106].
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ Paper did not exist at this time. Cowrie shells used at the time [107] Jade [108].

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥ It is likely that the political core communicated to the elites in the regions using messengers.
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥ Unknown. No data on whether the elite used relay stations to transmit messages faster. May be worth noting that the government did have an official to manage the roads.
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥ Little literacy so there would have been nobody to use a general postal service, if such had existed.

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Jill Levine ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ used in bronze
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ "bronze was first exploited for making weapons. Bronze spears, swords, daggers and halberds".[109]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Iron not discovered at this time.
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Steel not discovered at this time.

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ The "spear appears to have remained relatively uncommon prior to the late Shang."[110] Spears, according to account of battle with Zhou.[111] Bronze spears.[112] Were these thrown or hand-held spears? Or both?
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Technology used in the new world. Unlikely.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ Certainly known from the following Zhou period, when: "The conscripted foot soldiers wore sheepskin jackets and used slings and bows with bronze-tipped arrows."[113]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from presence of self bows from previous and subsequent polities in Middle Yellow River Valley.
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Composite retroflex bow. [114] "the typical Chinese composite bow... was already in use under the Shang".[115] Used the compound bow.[116]
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Considered warring States period technology. [117]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Siege weaponry not present until Warring States period [118]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Siege weaponry not present until Warring States period [119]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Cannons and firearms not present until the Song [120]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Gunpowder not invented for another couple of thousand years.

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Present for Erlitou, unknown for Erligang (the period that precedes the Shang).
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Conventional axes used as "symbols of authority, for executing prisoners, or both" [121]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ [122] Bronze daggers.[123]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ present: jade ware found at Sanxingdui includes swords.[124] Bronze swords.[125] present: Sword found at Dayangzhou, Xin'gan, Erligang Culture, possibly Huan-bei period.[126] Coding present on basis the "present" reference is more recent and that the technology would not have been lost between the Erligang and the later Shang.
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Spears.[127] Used the spear.[128] "The advancement of bronze technology and the use of bronze weapons gave the Shang military great advantage over their enemies and completely changed the way they fought wars. They used newly-developed weapons like the bronze-tipped halberd and spear, the compound bow; and most importantly, they used horse-drawn chariots." [129]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ The Shang dagger-axe had a one meter long shaft, could also be classified as a polearm.[130] Dagger-axe.[131] Used a "bronze tipped halberd".[132] Bronze halberds.[133]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "The “canine officers” (ch’üan) probably had their origin as kennel masters for the king’s dogs, but their number multiplied and their authority expanded as the role of dogs increased in protection, the hunt, and perhaps the battlefield."[134] Never used in warfare. [135]
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ Used as pack animals in warfare.[136]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Horse domesticated c1250 BCE. Use of horse chariot recorded on oracle bones. Chariot had "western" design.[137] Used horse-drawn chariots, most likely "introduced from western Asia".[138]
♠ Camels ♣ ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ inferred present ♥ Two elephants found buried at Xibeigang. [139] 60 ivory elephant tusks found at Sanxingdui.[140]. Used in warfare, as pack animals. [141]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ Given the wide array of offensive weapons it would be surprising if nothing had evolved to counter them. for example, shields and helmets to absorb the blow of crushing weapons like the mace and battle-axe. We would expect the earliest defenses to not have been made of metal and so unlikely to have been preserved.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ Dien[142] notes that the earliest evidence of armor is a leather breastplate from a tomb at Anyang in 1000 BCE. Unclear if it was ornamental or practical, but the next evidence comes from warring states period -- still unclear how widespread armor use was before warring states. However, this reference is from 1981 and a lot of archaeology has been done since then. Given the wide array of offensive weapons it would be surprising if nothing had evolved to counter them. for example, shields and helmets to absorb the blow of crushing weapons like the mace and battle-axe. we would expect the earliest defenses to not have been made of metal and so unlikely to have been preserved. an ornamental breastplate logically would have been based on a practical counterpart.
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ "troops were only minimally protected by armor and carried comparatively small shields."[143] Helmet found at Dayangzhou, Xin'gan, Erligang Culture, possibly Huan-bei period.[144] so they almost certainly conceived of the shield, however it might not have been made of metal and preserved? Given the wide array of offensive weapons it would be surprising if nothing had evolved to counter them. for example, shields and helmets to absorb the blow of crushing weapons like the mace and battle-axe. we would expect the earliest defenses to not have been made of metal and so unlikely to have been preserved.
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ [145] Helmet found at Dayangzhou, Xin'gan, Erligang Culture, possibly Huan-bei period.[146]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred absent ♥ widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c bce [147][148]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred absent ♥ widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c bce [149][150]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred absent ♥ widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c bce [151][152]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c bce [153][154]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c bce [155][156]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c bce [157][158]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ There are written references to boats starting with the oracle bones of the Shang dynasty, which bear graphs interpreted as the original signs for a boat, a boat propelled by an oar, and the way to caulk the seams of a boat. Caulking suggests considerable sophistication in construction at such an early date. [159]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The first recorded use of ships in a military operation occurred circa 1045 B.C.E." [160] Used against the Shang by the Zhou.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The first recorded use of ships in a military operation occurred circa 1045 B.C.E." [161] Used against the Shang by the Zhou.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ "Late Paleolithic Chinese roamed the grasslands of the great Northern Plain, gathering wild varieties of millet. Around 7000-6000 B.C.E. they began creating a village culture along the Yellow River, elevating their villages above the floodplain, often enclosing them with ditches or wooden palisades."[162] Archaeological evidence is not mentioned and may not exist. This may be reasonable speculation. By the time of the Shang period lesser settlements may have been palisaded.
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Walled settlements, stamped earth foundations. [163]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ "Some towns in the late Shang and early Chou continued to employ nothing more than ditches long after massive fortifications had become commonplace".[164]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ " no defensive fortifications apart from a single moat have yet been discovered amid the opulent remains at Anyang".[165]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Walls were constructed using earth. Stone walls present in the Neolithic period [166]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Walls were constructed using earth.
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No data.
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred present ♥ Zhengzhou had an inner and outer wall, still present in Late Shang.[167]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ Walls of Ao extended 7 km. [168] City wall, so does not count as a long wall.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Gunpowder not present so walls at this time were not designed to defend against gunpowder siege artillery.

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ absent ♥[169]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ absent ♥[170]
♠ Impeachment ♣ absent ♥[171]

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ status and occupation seem very tied to birth and position of lineage (cf. Keightley 1999). presence of king and noble family

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ [172]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ You don’t usually talk about rulers as gods in Chinese. If we define deities as those who are worshipped ‒ the Chinese emperor receives respect but he does not receive sacrifice.[173]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ [174]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ [175]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ elites definitely had privilages separate from 'commoners' [176]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [177] [178] [179]

References

  1. (Roberts 2003)
  2. (Roberts 2003)
  3. (Hook 1991, 142)
  4. (Roberts 2003)
  5. (Bavarian 2005) Bavarian, Behzad. July 2005. Unearthing Technology’s Influence on the Ancient Chinese Dynasties through Metallurgical Investigations, California State University. Northridge. http://library.csun.edu/docs/bavarian.pdf
  6. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  7. (Chang 1980)
  8. (Eno 2008) Eno, Robert. Spring 2008. EALC E232. Indiana University
  9. (Eno 2008) Eno, Robert. Spring 2008. EALC E232. Indiana University
  10. (Eno 2008) Eno, Robert. Spring 2008. EALC E232. Indiana University"
  11. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  12. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  13. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  14. (Roberts 2003)
  15. (Gernet 1996)
  16. (Cotterell 1995, 24)
  17. (Cotterell 1995, 15)
  18. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  19. (San 2014, 19) San, Tan Koon. 2014. Dynastic China: An Elementary History. Malaysia: The Other Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/TB95WB7F.
  20. (San 2014, 19) San, Tan Koon. 2014. Dynastic China: An Elementary History. Malaysia: The Other Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/TB95WB7F.
  21. (San 2014, 17) San, Tan Koon. 2014. Dynastic China: An Elementary History. Malaysia: The Other Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/TB95WB7F.
  22. (San 2014, 17) San, Tan Koon. 2014. Dynastic China: An Elementary History. Malaysia: The Other Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/TB95WB7F.
  23. (San 2014, 20) San, Tan Koon. 2014. Dynastic China: An Elementary History. Malaysia: The Other Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/TB95WB7F.
  24. (Encyclopedia Britannica 2017) “Shang Dynasty.” Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Shang-dynasty Accessed May 29, 2017. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/8GNFD4WH.
  25. (San 2014, 16) San, Tan Koon. 2014. Dynastic China: An Elementary History. Malaysia: The Other Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/TB95WB7F.
  26. (San 2014, 16, 21) San, Tan Koon. 2014. Dynastic China: An Elementary History. Malaysia: The Other Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/TB95WB7F.
  27. (San 2014, 16) San, Tan Koon. 2014. Dynastic China: An Elementary History. Malaysia: The Other Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/TB95WB7F)
  28. (San 2014, 21) San, Tan Koon. 2014. Dynastic China: An Elementary History. Malaysia: The Other Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/TB95WB7F.
  29. (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 170-72) McEvedy, Colin, and Richard Jones. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/6U4QZXCG/q/atlas%20of%20world%20population.
  30. (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)
  31. (Keay 2009, 48)
  32. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  33. (Liu 2005: 240) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Q77FKW2H?.
  34. (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 170-172)
  35. (Cotterell 1995, 15)
  36. (Modelski 1997 [1])
  37. (Armstrong 2006, 27)
  38. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  39. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  40. (Lindqvist 2009) Lindqvist, Cecilia. 2009. China: Empire of Living Symbols. Da Capo Press.
  41. (Bavarian 2005) Bavarian, Behzad. July 2005. Unearthing Technology’s Influence on the Ancient Chinese Dynasties through Metallurgical Investigations, California State University. Northridge. http://library.csun.edu/docs/bavarian.pdf
  42. (Roberts 2003)
  43. (Keay 2009)
  44. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  45. (Gernet 1996,47)
  46. (Kerr 2013, 21)
  47. (Gernet 1996, 47)
  48. (Hook 1991, 143)
  49. (Roberts 2003)
  50. (Fussati 1982, 19)
  51. (Kerr 2013, 21)
  52. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  53. (Roberts 2003, 10)
  54. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  55. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  56. (Roberts 2003)
  57. (Keay 2009, 49)
  58. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  59. (Elmam 2000, 5) Elman, B. 2000. A cultural history of civil examinations in late imperial China. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  60. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  61. (Keay 2009: 49) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Z4ACHZRD?.
  62. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  63. (Zhang 2014, 154) Zhang, Jinfan. 2014. The Tradition and Modern Transition of Chinese Law. Springer Science & Business Media.
  64. (Zhang 2014, 154) Zhang, Jinfan. 2014. The Tradition and Modern Transition of Chinese Law. Springer Science & Business Media.
  65. (Zhang 2014, 153) Zhang, Jinfan. 2014. The Tradition and Modern Transition of Chinese Law. Springer Science & Business Media.
  66. (Liang 2010, XI) Liang, Huixing. 2010. The Draft Civil Code of the People's Republic of China: English Translation (Prepared by the Legislative Research Group of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
  67. (Zhang 2014, 155) Zhang, Jinfan. 2014. The Tradition and Modern Transition of Chinese Law. Springer Science & Business Media.
  68. (Zhang 2014, 155) Zhang, Jinfan. 2014. The Tradition and Modern Transition of Chinese Law. Springer Science & Business Media.
  69. (Zhang 2014, 155) Zhang, Jinfan. 2014. The Tradition and Modern Transition of Chinese Law. Springer Science & Business Media.
  70. (Zhang 2014, 155) Zhang, Jinfan. 2014. The Tradition and Modern Transition of Chinese Law. Springer Science & Business Media.
  71. (Lemoy 2011, 72) Lemoy, Christian. 2011. Across the Pacific: From Ancient Asia to Precolombian America. Universal Publishers. Florida.
  72. (Cotterell 1995, 15)
  73. (Feinman, Gary. North China Workshop 2016)
  74. (Cotterell 1995, 15)
  75. (Lindqvist 2009) Lindqvist, Cecilia. 2009. China: Empire of Living Symbols. Da Capo Press.
  76. (Lindqvist 2009) Lindqvist, Cecilia. 2009. China: Empire of Living Symbols. Da Capo Press.
  77. (Bavarian 2005) Bavarian, Behzad. July 2005. Unearthing Technology’s Influence on the Ancient Chinese Dynasties through Metallurgical Investigations, California State University. Northridge. http://library.csun.edu/docs/bavarian.pdf
  78. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  79. (Roberts 2003, 7)
  80. (Kerr 2013, 20)
  81. (Flad 2008)
  82. (Roberts 2003, 7)
  83. (Roberts 2003, 7)
  84. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  85. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  86. (Cotterell 1995, 15)
  87. (Hook 1991, 143)
  88. (Eno 2008) Eno, Robert. Spring 2008. EALC E232. Indiana University"
  89. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  90. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  91. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  92. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  93. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  94. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  95. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  96. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  97. (Kerr 2013, 20)
  98. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  99. (Armstrong 2006, 32)
  100. (Kerr 2013, 20)
  101. (Peers 2011, 278)
  102. (Armstrong 2006, 32)
  103. (Kerr 2013, 20)
  104. (Peers 2011, 278)
  105. (Kerr 2013, 20)
  106. (Peers 2011, 278)
  107. (Kerr 2013, 20)
  108. (Peers 2011, 278)
  109. (Bavarian 2005) Bavarian, Behzad. July 2005. Unearthing Technology’s Influence on the Ancient Chinese Dynasties through Metallurgical Investigations, California State University. Northridge. http://library.csun.edu/docs/bavarian.pdf
  110. Sawyer, R. 2011. Ancient Chinese Warfare. Basic Books.
  111. (Cotterell 1995, 28)
  112. (Bavarian 2005) Bavarian, Behzad. July 2005. Unearthing Technology’s Influence on the Ancient Chinese Dynasties through Metallurgical Investigations, California State University. Northridge. http://library.csun.edu/docs/bavarian.pdf
  113. (Meyer 1994, 132) Milton Walter Meyer. 1994. China: A Concise History. Second Edition, Revised. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Lanham.
  114. (Gernet 1996, 44)
  115. Sawyer, R. 2011. Ancient Chinese Warfare. Basic Books.
  116. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  117. (Liang 2005)
  118. (Liang 2005)
  119. (Liang 2005)
  120. (Liang 2005)
  121. (Peers 2013, 7)
  122. (Peers 2013, 10)
  123. (Bavarian 2005) Bavarian, Behzad. July 2005. Unearthing Technology’s Influence on the Ancient Chinese Dynasties through Metallurgical Investigations, California State University. Northridge. http://library.csun.edu/docs/bavarian.pdf
  124. (Bavarian 2005) Bavarian, Behzad. July 2005. Unearthing Technology’s Influence on the Ancient Chinese Dynasties through Metallurgical Investigations, California State University. Northridge. http://library.csun.edu/docs/bavarian.pdf
  125. (Bavarian 2005) Bavarian, Behzad. July 2005. Unearthing Technology’s Influence on the Ancient Chinese Dynasties through Metallurgical Investigations, California State University. Northridge. http://library.csun.edu/docs/bavarian.pdf
  126. (Thorp 2013, 110) Thorp, Robert L. 2013. China in the Early Bronze Age: Shang Civilization. University of Pennsylvania Press.
  127. (Dreyer, 2012, 20)
  128. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  129. http://spice.fsi.stanford.edu/docs/the_shang_dynasty_1600_to_1050_bce/
  130. (Gauckroger and Scott 2009, 11)
  131. (Peers 2013, 10)
  132. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  133. (Bavarian 2005) Bavarian, Behzad. July 2005. Unearthing Technology’s Influence on the Ancient Chinese Dynasties through Metallurgical Investigations, California State University. Northridge. http://library.csun.edu/docs/bavarian.pdf
  134. Sawyer, R. 2011. Ancient Chinese Warfare. Basic Books.
  135. (North China Conference 2016)
  136. (North China Conference 2016)
  137. (Roberts 2003, 10)
  138. (The Shang Dynasty, 1600 to 1050 BCE. Spice Digest, Fall 2007. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/117/ShangDynasty.pdf)
  139. (Bagley 1999, 193) Bagley, Robert. 1999. "Shang Archaeology." eds. Loewe, Michael and Edward Shaughnessy. The Cambridge History of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 124-136.
  140. (Bavarian 2005) Bavarian, Behzad. July 2005. Unearthing Technology’s Influence on the Ancient Chinese Dynasties through Metallurgical Investigations, California State University. Northridge. http://library.csun.edu/docs/bavarian.pdf
  141. (North China Conference 2016)
  142. (Dien 1981, 6)
  143. Sawyer, R. 2011. Ancient Chinese Warfare. Basic Books.
  144. (Thorp 2013, 110) Thorp, Robert L. 2013. China in the Early Bronze Age: Shang Civilization.University of Pennsylvania Press.
  145. (Peers 2013, 10)
  146. (Thorp 2013, 110) Thorp, Robert L. 2013. China in the Early Bronze Age: Shang Civilization.University of Pennsylvania Press.
  147. (Dien 1981)
  148. (Tin-bor Hui 2005)
  149. (Dien 1981)
  150. (Tin-bor Hui 2005)
  151. (Dien 1981)
  152. (Tin-bor Hui 2005)
  153. (Dien 1981)
  154. (Tin-bor Hui 2005)
  155. (Dien 1981)
  156. (Tin-bor Hui 2005)
  157. (Dien 1981)
  158. (Tin-bor Hui 2005)
  159. Kidder Jr., J. Edward, 2007. Himiko and Japan's Elusive Kingdom of Yamatai (Honolulu: Hawaii University Press). p. 40
  160. (Lorge 2012, 82-83)
  161. (Lorge 2012, 82-83)
  162. (Adler and Pouwels 2018, 54-55) Philip J Adler. Randall L Pouwels. 2018. World Civilizations. Eighth Edition. Cengage Learning. Boston.
  163. (Hook 1991, 142)
  164. (Sawyer 2011, 41) Sawyer, R. 2011. Ancient Chinese Warfare. Basic Books.
  165. Sawyer, R. 2011. Ancient Chinese Warfare. Basic Books.
  166. (Feinman, Gary and Liye, Xie. North China Workshop 2016)
  167. (Liu and Chen 2012: 359: 384) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY?.
  168. (Cotterell 1995, 17)
  169. (Keightley 2008)
  170. (Keightley 2008)
  171. (Keightley 2008)
  172. (Barend tar Heer, Oxford workshop January 2017)
  173. (Barend tar Heer, Oxford workshop January 2017)
  174. (Barend tar Heer, Oxford workshop January 2017)
  175. (Barend tar Heer, Oxford workshop January 2017)
  176. (Barend tar Heer, Oxford workshop January 2017)
  177. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  178. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  179. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html

Armstrong, K (2006) The Great Transformation, Atlantic Books, London.

Bagley, Robert. 1999. "Shang Archaeology." eds. Loewe, Michael and Edward Shaughnessy. The Cambridge History of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 124-136.

Bol, P., C. Cook, G. Feinman, V.Mair, P.Sabloff, and L.Xie. “Seshat North China Workshop.” Tampa, Florida. January 15-17 2016. Workshop.

Campbell, R. B. et al. (2011) "Consumption, exchange and production at the Great Settlement Shang: bone-working at Tiesanlu, Anyang," Antiquity 85: 1279-97.

Campbell, R. B. (2014) Archaeology of the Chinese Bronze Age from Erlitou to Anyang. Los Angeles: The Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press.

Chang, K-C. (1980) Shang Civilization. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Cotterell, A (1995) China, A History, Pimlico, London.

Dreyer, E. 2012. Military History of China. Graff, A. and R. Higham (ed.). "Continuity and Change" pp 18-38. Kentucky: University of Kentucky Press.

Dien, A. E. (1981) “A Study of Early Chinese Armor,” Artibus Asiae 43/1-2: 5-66.

Fiskejö, M. 2001. Rising from Blood-Stained Fields: Royal Hunting and State Formation in Shang China. Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 73: 48-192.

Fussati, G trans. Penman, B (1982) The Monuments of Civilization: China, New English Library.

Gaukroger, N. and R. Scott. 2009. Empires of the Dragon: The Far East at War. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.

Gernet J trans. Foster J R, Hartman C (1996) A History of Chinese Civilization, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Hook B, Twitchett, D eds (1991) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of China, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Keay, J (2009) China, A History, HarperPress, London.

Keightley, D. N. (1979-80) "The Shang State As Seen In The Oracle-Bone Inscriptions," Early China Vol.5, 25-34.

Keightley, D. N. (2004) "The Making of Ancestors: Late Shang Religion and its Legacy," in J. Lagerwey (ed.) Religion and Chinese Society Vol. 1: Ancient and Medieval China, 3-63.

Keightley, D. N. (2008) "The Shang: China's First Historical Dynasty," in M. Loewe and E. L. Shaughnessy (eds) The Cambridge History of Ancient China: from the origins of civilization to 221 BC. New York: Cambridge University Press, 232-91.

Kerr, G (2013) A Short History of China, Pocket Essentials, Harpenden.

Koon San, T. 1944. Dynastic China: An Elementary History. Malaysia: The Other Press.

Liu, L. (2013) Early China: A Social and Cultural History. New York : Cambridge University Press.

Lorge P. 2012. Water Forces and Naval Operations (81-96). A Military History of China. Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky.

Lovell, J. 2006. The Great Wall: China Against the World 1000 BC-2000 AD. New York: Grove Press.

McEvedy C, Jones, R (1979) Atlas of World Population History, Allen Lane, London. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/6U4QZXCG/q/atlas%20of%20world%20population

McGovern, P, et al. Fermented beverages of pre- and proto- historic China, PNAS: 101 (51), December 2004, 17593-17598.

Peers, C. 2013. Battles of Ancient China. Pen and Sword.

Reinhart, K. (2015) Ritual feasting and empowerment at Yanshi Shangcheng. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 39: 76-109.

Roberts, J A G (2003) The Complete History of China, Sutton Publishing, Stroud.

Sawyer, R. 2011. Ancient Chinese Warfare. Basic Books.

"Slavery." 2003. The New Encyclopaedia Britanncia, Vol. 27. Encyclopadia Britanncia, inc.

Thorp, R. L. (1983) “Origins of Chinese Architectural Style: The Earliest Plans and Building Types,” Archives of Asian Art 36: 22-39.

Thorp, R. L. (2005) Encounters with Asia: China in the Early Bronze Age: Shang Civilization. University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia.

Underhill, A. P. (2002) Craft production and social change in northern China. New York : Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers

Yuan Haibing, Li Fajun, Zhang Jinglei, Sheng Lishuang, and Zhu Hong. Stature Determination of Human Bones from the Taohuayuan Cemetery of the Ming and Qing Periods in Ji Country. 2008. Acta Anthropologica Sinica. 27(4): 318-326.

San, Tan Koon. 2014. Dynastic China: An Elementary History. Malaysia: The Other Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/TB95WB7F

--"Shang Dynasty.” Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Shang-dynasty Accessed May 29, 2017. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/8GNFD4WH