CnQingL

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Po-Ju Tuan; Jill Levine ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Late Qing ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Qing dynasty; Qīng Cháo; Ch'ing Ch'ao; Empire of the Great Qing; Great Qing; Manchu dynasty ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1850 ♥ CE (period of greatest population) The peak date of Qing dynasty is generally defined as the period between regime of Kangxi to Qinglong Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1796-1912 CE ♥ 1796 CE- 1820 CE: Jiaqing Emperor (清仁宗/嘉慶) 1820 CE - 1850 CE: Daoguang Emperor (清宣宗/道光) 1850 CE - 1861 CE: Xianfeng Emperor (清文宗/咸豐) 1861 CE - 1875 CE: Tongzhi Emperor (清穆宗/同治) 1875 CE - 1908 CE: Guangxu Emperor (清德宗/光緒) 1908 CE - 1912 CE: Puyi (溥儀/宣統)

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥ Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Early Qing ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Republic of China ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ China ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 11,300,000 ♥ km^2

♠ Capital ♣ Beijing ♥

♠ Language ♣ Manchu language; Chinese ♥[1]

General Description

The Qing Dynasty (or Empire of the Great Qing, Great Qing, Manchu Dynasty, Manchus, Jin, Jurchens, Ch'ing Dynasty) was China's last imperial dynasty. The founders of the Qing were descendants of Jurchen Jin rulers. The dynasty was founded by Nurhaci and then led by his son Huang Taiji, but did not become an imperial Chinese dynasty until after Huang Taiji's death.[2] In 1644 CE, Qing forces captured the Ming capital at Beijing from rebels and held a funeral for the last Ming emperor to symbolize Qing inheritance of the Mandate of Heaven.[3]
The Qing faced conflict with rebels and loyalist Ming forces for the next two decades.[4] Ming generals who surrendered were given power over large territories in southern China in exchange for loyalty to the Qing. In 1673 CE, leaders from three major southern feudatories led by Wu Sangui rebelled against Emperor Kangxi when he tried to reduce their power.[5] The Revolt of the Three Feudatories, as this episode is known, lasted eight years.
We divide the Qing Dynasty into two, an Early period (1644-1796 CE) and a Late period (1796-1912 CE). The division is marked by a period of internal turmoil as well as foreign incursions into its territory and economic sphere. In the Early Qing period, China had been prosperous under Kangxi and Qing rule, but by the time of the Opium Wars in the Late Qing, Western technology and industry had surpassed that of China.[6] The fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1911 gave rise to the Republic of China.
From 1850 to 1864 CE, China was racked by the fourteen-year Taiping Rebellion. The rebellion directly caused 30 million deaths and destroyed many regions in the middle and lower Yangtze.[7] In 1853, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace established a capital in Nanjing, but the rebellion was defeated by armies led by local governors in 1864.[8] A number of serious uprisings followed the Taiping Rebellion, including the Nian Rebellion (1853-1868 CE).[9]
At the same time, the Qing emperors were facing economic problems due to the actions of foreign powers. In the 1830s, British merchants began illegally importing opium to China, where high demand for the drug led to a large trade imbalance. China's economy was drained of silver[10] and the value of copper coins depreciated.[11] The First Opium War broke out in 1839 CE when a Chinese commissioner attempted to block opium trade in Guangzhou harbour.[12] The Second Opium War of 1858 CE was a series of military actions by the British and French against the Qing.[13] The resulting treaties allowed foreign powers to establish concessions in China, abolished taxes for French and British merchants, and forced the Qing to pay large amounts of silver in damages.[14]
The 19th century saw increasingly frequent intrusions by foreign powers. Foreign merchants exploited their tax-free status, to the detriment of local Chinese producers. China was forced to cede much of its territory in Vietnam, Burma and elsewhere.[15] By the end of the 19th century, a range of foreign powers including Great Britain, Japan, Germany, and France claimed colonial territories in China.[16] A peasant uprising known as the Boxer Rebellion targeted foreigners in 1900 CE.
In 1860, the Qing rulers were exiled outside the Great Wall when foreign invaders burned down the Summer Palace.[17] The court was restored by the regent Empress Dowager Cixi and Prince Gong in what is known as the Tongzhi restoration.[18] However, the dynasty was finally overthrown in the Revolution of 1911 and the Republic of China was founded.

Population and political organization

The Late Qing maintained a traditional imperial-style Chinese government headed by an emperor and central bureaucracy. Provincial government consisted of governors who controlled a hierarchical system of officials, prefects, county chiefs, county magistrates, and clerks.[19] The Qing were deeply opposed to modernization: the scholars Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao had to flee after attempting to reform government practices in 1898 CE.[20] Rebellions in the 19th century led to the rise of local governors and military commanders, who acted as warlords to control their local regions.[21]
The period between the mid-18th and mid-19th centuries was one of extremely rapid population growth in Late Qing China, and by 1851 the population had reached 431.9 million people.[22] However, a number of censuses after that date could not be completed due to the rebellions.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Po-Ju Tuan ♥ Many of these codes were developed at Seshat North China Workshop in Tampa Bay, 2016


Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 11,300,000 ♥ km^2

♠ Polity Population ♣ 295,000,000: 1800 CE; [334,000,000-348,000,000]: 1900 CE ♥ People

Later Qing has population over 300 million according to The Cambridge History of China[23]

1812 CE: 361,695,492 people: The census was interrupted due to nature disasters, scattered rebellions, and White Lotus Rebellion occurred in 1794-1804 among impoverished settlers in the mountainous region that separates Sichuan province from Hubei and Shaanxi provinces.

1833 CE: 398,942,036 people:[24]

1852 CE: 334,403,035 people: (1)[25](2) The census was interrupted due to the outbreak of Nian Rebellion taking place in northern China from 1851 to 1868, and Taiping Rebellion (1851-1864) in South China.

1912 CE: 347,902,562 people: The census was conducted since 1910 and completed in 1912.[26]

Other figures:[27]

Po-Ju Tuan coded the following estimates--they have been moved to the description field in case this level of detail is useful in the future: 275,662,044: 1796 CE; 271,333,544: 1797 CE; 290,982,980: 1798 CE; 293,283,179: 1799 CE; 295,237,311: 1800 CE; 297,501,548: 1801 CE; 299,749,770: 1802 CE; 302,250,673: 1803 CE; 304,461,284: 1804 CE; 332,181,403: 1805 CE; 335,369,469: 1806 CE; 338,062,439: 1807 CE; 350,291,724: 1808 CE; 352,900,024: 1809 CE; 345,717,214: 1810 CE; 358,610,039: 1811 CE; {333,700,560; 361,695,492; 363,695,492}: 1812 CE; 336,451,672: 1813 CE; 316,574,895: 1814 CE; 326,574,895: 1815 CE; 328,814,957: 1816 CE; 331,330,433: 1817 CE; {301,260,545; 371,580,173}: 1819 CE; {353,377,694; 373,773,394; 383,100,000}: 1820 CE; 355,540,258: 1821 CE; 372,457,539: 1822 CE; {375,153,122; 380,619,569}: 1823 CE; {374,601,132; 382,439,631}: 1824 CE; {379,885,340; 387,026,888}: 1825 CE; {380,287,007; 386,081,958}: 1826 CE; {383,696,095; 388,608,215}: 1827 CE; {386,531,513; 390,755,718}: 1828 CE; 390,500,650: 1829 CE; 394,784,681: 1830 CE; 395,821,092: 1831 CE; 397,132,659: 1832 CE; 398,942,036: 1833 CE; 401,008,574: 1834 CE; {401,767,053; 403,052,086}: 1835 CE; 404,901,448: 1836 CE; {405 923 174; 406 984 114}: 1837 CE; 409,038,799: 1838 CE; 410,850,639: 1839 CE; 412,814,828: 1840 CE; 413,457,311: 1841 CE; {414,686,994; 416,118,189}: 1842 CE; 417,239,097: 1843 CE; 419,441,336: 1844 CE; 421,342,730: 1845 CE; 423,121,129: 1846 CE; {424,938,009; 425,106,201}: 1847 CE; {426,737,016; 426,928,854}: 1848 CE; {412,986,649; 428,420,667}: 1849 CE; {414,493,899; 429,931,034}: 1850 CE; {432,164,047; 431,894,047}: 1851 CE; 334,403,035: 1852 CE; 347,902,565: 1920 CE.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 890,892: 1781 CE; 1,039,360: 1882 CE; 1,104,372: 1910 CE ♥ people[28]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 7 ♥ levels.

1. Capital City
2. Province
3. Tao seat inferred
4. Prefecture (Fu) seat inferred
5. County (Xian) seat inferred
6. Town/City (Xiancheng)
7. Village

Province: 18 provinces[29]

Tao: Grouping of two or more prefectures for certain purpose, was interposed between the prefectures and provinces[30]

Prefecture (Fu): 180 prefectures[31]

“The Ch'ing judicial system rose upward through a territorial hierarchy of some six different levels. It began with the 1,500 xians or counties (also called districts) and similar regions and then proceeded to the higher levels of the 180 prefectures and the 18 provinces. Thence cases went to the Board of Punishments at the capital and then to a fifth level, the three high courts. The emperor was the top level. He might confirm or reject recommendations concerning capital cases sent up from below.”[32]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 7 ♥ levels.

1. Emperor
2. Central Government
3. Provincial Government-general (Zongdu, viceroy)
3. Provincial Governor (Xunfu)
4. Tao governor inferred
5. Prefect inferred
6. County governor
7. District Magistrate
7. Official in charge of Prefecture/ Ting

The yamen of the district magistrate (usually the county magistrate, but sometimes prefecture or ting) was the lowest point in the official hierarchy.[33]

District Magistrate occupied position 7A in the Qing territorial administrative hierarchy. [34] Mostern confirmed that county should be one level above district, since 'xiang' are subordinate to 'xian,' which is routinely translated to 'county.' [35] There was a prefect level between county magistrates and provincial governors, while district magistrates were too low to be included in a prefecture so they were overseen directly by the provincial governor. Promotion from county magistrate to prefect was possible. [36]

♠ Religious levels ♣ 3 ♥ levels. Inferred from previous polities.

1. Emperor
2. Ministry of Rites
3. Ritual specialists

♠ Military levels ♣ [8-11] ♥ levels.

1. Commander-in-chief (Emperor)

2. Provincial governor/Governor-general
3. Provincial military commander/Provincial commander-in-chief/General-in-chief
4. Fu jiang, Deputy General
5. Can jiang
6. Youji
7. Dusi
8. Shoubei
9. Qianzong
10. Bazong, Low-level officer
11. Soldier

_1868 CE: Yung-ying (Brave Battalions)_[37]

4. Army Commanders (t'ung-ling)
5. Battalion Commander (ying-kuan)
6. Company Officer (Shao-kuan)
7. Platoon Officers (Shih-chang)
8. Soldiers

_1904 CE: New Army_ "The thirty-six divisions of the New Army, each with 12,500 men including officers and soldiers, would total 450,000 men and compose the Regular Army. Besides this, Reserves for the First Call (Hsu-pei chiin) and Reserves for the Second Call (Hou-pei chiin) were to be organized. The term of service in the Regular Army (Ch'ang-pei chiin) was three years, after which men would return home and receive occasional drill and a small stipend for another three years. These men would be the Reserves for the First Call. As Reserves for the Second Call they would then serve another four years, receiving less drill and less salary. On completion of this term, men would return to civilian status released from further military duty."[38]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ e.g. Green Standard officers [39]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ e.g. Bannermen and Green Standard soldiers [40]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ "... begun during the Tang dynasty... The rise of religious professionals and soldiers as clearly separate groups was contrary to the previous normative view of society divided into knights (shi, the term that would later be applied to the literati or gentry), farmers, artisans and merchants."[41]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ e.g. Civil Service, Military bureaucracy [42] Grand Secretariat, Six Boards (Revenue, Civil Office, War, Criminal Justice, Public Works, and Rites) each with large clerical staffs, presidents and vice presidents. [43]

♠ Examination system ♣ present ♥ e.g. Civil service examinations required for selecting imperial state officials [44]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ present ♥ e.g. Civil service examinations required for selecting imperial state officials [45]


♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ e.g. government offices, civil service examination halls, imperial archives, feudal office buildings, political buildings [46] [47]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥

Division between civil and criminal code in Chinese law did not occur until 1910.[48]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ e.g. provincial judges [49]

♠ Courts ♣ inferred absent ♥ Magistrates heard cases[50] but it seems this would be done in government buildings rather than a specialized courthouse.

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ present ♥ e.g. "legal advisers" (xingming or qiangu muyou) [51]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥[52] [53] The Board of Works was responsible for maintaining all official buildings, granaries, official communication routes, dykes, dams, and irrigation systems. [54]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ "In Bejinh, dwellers had, for generations, been using wells to draw groundwater for their daily life. The alleys in Beijing are called 'hutong' which means 'well' in Mongolian. [...] When the City was reconstructed in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, many 'hutongs' were left without a well. According to contemporary records from the Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, the quality of water in the wells had been low due to salinisation and this led to two results: water was supplied at three levels of quality (for washing, cooking, and drinking tea); and, seling water became a profession in Beijing (Duan, 1989)." [55]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ e.g. local markets, market towns [56]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ "official granaries" [57] The Board of Works was responsible for maintaining all official buildings, granaries, official communication routes, dykes, dams, and irrigation systems. [58]
♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ By the end of the Qing Dynasty, road systems in China were organized and classified into hierarchies. [59] The Board of Works was responsible for maintaining all official buildings, granaries, official communication routes, dykes, dams, and irrigation systems. [60]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ e.g. Yongqing Bridge and Santiao Bridge [61] The Board of Works was responsible for maintaining all official buildings, granaries, official communication routes, dykes, dams, and irrigation systems. [62]
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ e.g. The Grand Canal [63] Overall, the canal systems declined drastically near the end of the Qing with increased silting in the Yellow River. The Board of Works was responsible for maintaining all official buildings, granaries, official communication routes, dykes, dams, and irrigation systems. [64]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Canton, Amoy, Fuchow, Ningpo, Shanghai, Jiaozhou Bay, Dalian, Port Arthur

The most impressive/costly building(s)

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ Qing rulers limited their trading licenses and usually refused them permission to open new mines, except in poor areas.[65] [66]

Information

Measurement System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ present ♥ E.g. abacus.
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ Paintings: "the Qing court commissioned a great number of battle paintings that commemorated important military victories" [67]
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ e.g. historical archives and documents collected by the Hanlin Academy, Qing imperial archives [68]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ e.g. Manchu script, Chinese script, Calligraphy [69]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ e.g. tax collection and registration system lichia [70]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ e.g. ritual calendar [71]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ e.g. Sacred Edict, The Transformations of Wengchang [72]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ e.g. Heavenly Kingdom literature [73]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ The Qingshi gao also included significant monographs on ritual, music, geography, food and commodities, law and punishments, civil service, the army, and foreign relations, as well as biographies on important confucian scholars, literary persons, and loyal subjects. [74]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ e.g. official history produced by the Bureau of National History. According to Smith, "History was more than just a narrative of the past, then; it was also a guide to proper conduct for the present and the future." [75]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ e.g. Confucian Five Classics [76]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ e.g. scientific journals sponsored by Western missionaries [77] [78]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Popular fiction growing in the late Qing. [79] Poetry was viewed as an exalted literary form, deemed appropriate for elite women, whereas vernacular fiction was generally socially disesteemed [80]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Grain as tax payment. "The third device was the relative freedom with which local magistrates set the exchange rates between nominal assessments in grain or silver and the number of copper cash per picul of grain or tael of silver which they would accept in full payment of the tax due."[81]
♠ Tokens ♣ absent ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ non-coined silver, gold, platinum.
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ Development of foreign trade in the Qing dynasty led to a tremendous inflow of foreign silver coinage in the late Qing, including Spanish silver coins, Mexican silver coins, and Japanese silver coins. [82]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Bronze and copper coinage, by 1887 a mint established in Guangdong to mint silver coins. [83] Bimetallic system, includes the use of silver taels with copper and bronze coins. When the supply of silver changed as a result of international trade, it caused great financially instability within the system. [84]
♠ Paper currency ♣ present ♥ Qing issued paper currency in both Shunzhi and Xianfeng regime. “Although Chinese had begun using paper money during the Song Dynasty, the Ming had halted the practice in the mid-fifteenth century. Thereafter, except for two brief returns to paper currency by the Qing, in the Xunzhi (1644-61) and the Xianfeng (1851-61) reigns, no Chinese government again issued paper currency until the early twentieth century. The private sector moved to fill the void, and during the 100 or so years before the Opium War, several different instruments of currency, such as bank drafts were used to facilitate currency exchange. True paper money began circulating after various banks and money-changing shops issued paper receipts for deposits for silver and copper; these receipts, backed by a 100 percent reserve, soon began circulating as money” [85]
♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ Qing dynasty revived the courier postal system and used the courier system to transmit a form of confidential communication called a "palace memorial." [86]
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ extensive network of postal relay stations [87] military responsible for protecting postal stations and routes. [88]
♠ General postal service ♣ present ♥ [89] 1896 the General Post office set up in the Qing Dynasty constituting the first national postal service in China. [90]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Po-Ju Tuan; Jill Levine ♥ Many of these codes were developed at Seshat North China Workshop in Tampa Bay, 2016

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ e.g. copper alloy used to manufacture cannon, increasingly rare in the late Qing as Western military technology was sought out [91]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ e.g. cannon. 11 of the 60 cannon at Zhapu in 1840 were bronze [92]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ cast iron most common for manufacturing cannon, although it was impossible to purify the molten iron leaving inconsistent products prone to explosion. [93]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ e.g. sabres, short swords [94]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ the lance was a mainstay for bannermen [95]
♠ Atlatl ♣ suspected unknown♥
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ bow and arrow a mainstay for the bannermen soldiers [96]
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ The long reflexed composite bow was introduced by the Manchu of the Qing Dynasty and was capable of propelling heavy arrows with great force. They were not well suited for horseback, but their durability and power ensured that they became the standard bow of China, Manchu-dominated Mongolia and Tibet. Typically made with a bamboo core, horn belly, sinew backing, and wooden tips and handle. [97]
♠ Crossbow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Crossbows remained in use through the Early and Late Qing periods, e.g. chu-ko-nu which was a Chinese repeating crossbow equipped with a magazine to hold bolts. Typically made of wood, sinew wrapping, bamboo and thick rawhide string. [98]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred absent ♥ Catapults were "gradually replaced by the larger and more powerful cannons of the gunpowder age, completely disappearing by the middle of the Ming dynasty in about the 15th or 16th century A.D." [99]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ present ♥ e.g. cannon [100]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ present ♥ e.g. musket [101] Despite playing catchup, "China's firearms and artillery were similarly state-of-the-art for Asia" in their replication of Western models. [102]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ absent ♥ obsolete technology
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ straight blade axe [103]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Manchu soldiers carried daggers on their belts [104]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ "All soldiers were provided with uniforms and a short sword." [105]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ e.g. lance [106]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ Qing "cold weapons" included halberds, tomahawks, hooks, maces, and lances. [107]
♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ Never used in warfare. [108]
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ Zuo Zongtang used donkeys and camels for military transport, and compared the military cost of horses, camels, and donkeys in order to cut down the military expense.
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ [109]
♠ Camels ♣ present ♥ Zuo Zongtang used donkeys and camels for military transport, and compared the military cost of horses, camels, and donkeys in order to cut down the military expense.
♠ Elephants ♣ present ♥Used in warfare besides as pack animals. [110]
♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ absent ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ For example, leather cuirass, quilted cotton armor.; "infantry protective clothing was made of cloth." [111]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ e.g. "cane shields" [112]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ "Armor for cavalry consisted of a metal helmet and hauberk." [113]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ iron plates, used primarily for ceremonial or noble armor in the 19th century [114]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ brass studded skirt [115]
♠ Chainmail ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ iron breast plates, used primarily for ceremonial or noble armor in the 19th century [116]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ e.g. small wooden war vessels of the Gunagdong Fleet [117]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ present ♥ Yongzheng era, process of registering merchant vessels began [118]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ The Qing "imperial vessel" considered a symbol of the Qing military presence in the East Asian Sea, yet the guns, cannons, and soldiers on board these vessels more or less served as precautions against potential danger. With increasing foreign presence, the Manchu continued to build coastal defense and naval power in attempt to match the Western powers. [119]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ e.g. Jilin, Amur River, Ürümqi, Tibet
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ In the 1840s, wooden palisades were erected at the entrance to every lane within Hangzhou. [120]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ large tracts of The Great Wall are essentially earthen ramparts [121] Dinghai did not have any accessible quarries, so its defenses would have to built out of earthen ramparts. Zhoushan also had earth walls as fortifications during the Opium Wars. [122]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ Cities that did not have access to quarries or timber for palisades and stone walls, relied on earth defence. [123]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ Beijing had an extensive fortification system, consisting of the Forbidden City, the Imperial city, the Inner city, and the Outer city. Fortifications included gate towers, gates, archways, watchtowers, barbicans, barbican towers, barbican gates, barbican archways, sluice gates, sluice gate towers, enemy sighting towers, corner guard towers, and a moat system. It had the most extensive defence system in Imperial China.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥ e.g. The Great Wall [124]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ e.g. The Great Wall [125]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ e.g. The Qing set up all of Xinjiang as a military camp during their expansion [126]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ e.g. coastal forts, paotai [127]
♠ Long walls ♣ [6259-6700] ♥ km. Ming Great Wall restored and maintained by the Qing.

8850 km of total fortifications and 6,259km of wall sections, Great Wall measurement in 2009: "The project found that there were wall sections of 6,259km, 359km of trenches, and 2,232km of natural defensive barriers such as hills and rivers."[128]

2012: "The wall measures 21,196.18km (13,170.6956 miles) long based on the latest state survey results, state-run news agency Xinhua reported on Tuesday."[129]. Not sure the ratio of natural barriers, ditches, and long walls here. We code for long walls themselves not fortifications lines in this instance.

Qin Great Wall: 3,000 km Han Great Wall: 7,200 km Jin Wall 5,000 km Ming Wall 6,700 km[130]

"I have tried to examine the evidence, in the first instance, without any fixed prior idea of what it ought to add up to. When one does that, certain fundamental, and I think insurmountable, problems with the ordered concept of 'The Great Wall' itself become clearly evident. Then, rather than attempting somehow to fit recalcitrant evidence into it, I have chosen instead to discard the concept. The basic conviction that has thus emerged from my research is that the idea of the Great Wall of China, familiar to me since childhood, and with which I began my work, is a historical myth."[131]

♠ Modern fortifications ♣ present ♥ e.g. coastal fortresses, paotai [132]

Other technologies

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Po-Ju Tuan ♥ Many of these codes were developed at Seshat North China Workshop in Tampa Bay, 2016

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ present ♥ "The Son of Heaven exercised absolute power in theory, but in practice that power was limited by the need to observe ritual correctness and the precedents set by his forebears, the constraints of his personal energy and interest in his job (constraints that had severely curtailed the effectiveness of the late Ming rulers), and not least the limits of communication." [133] The emperor could not rule upon matter that did not come to his attention. Regional and provincial administrators had real decision-making power and often policy initiatives came from them rather than from the throne.
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ absent ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Dynastic system; hereditary nobles, Jurchens "membership in the banners was acquired at birth, making them the institutional home of a martial caste--an exclusive hereditary social group distinguished by a common occupation, soldiering. Membership in this caste played a vital role in the maintenance of Manchu ethnic identity and the perpetuation of Qing rule." [134]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ Emperor is the Son of Heaven, his legitimacy as a ruler authenticated by the Mandate of Heaven [135]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [136] [137] [138]

References

  1. (Crossley & Rawski, 1993)
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