CnQingE

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Po-Ju Tuan; Jill Levine ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Early Qing ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Qing dynasty; Qīng Cháo; Ch'ing Ch'ao; Empire of the Great Qing; Great Qing; Manchu dynasty; Manchus; Jin; Jurchens ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1796 CE ♥

1. Population of 1794 CE: About [313,281,795 ; 313,281,295] people 2. The peak of Early Qing dynasty is generally defined as the period between regime of Kangxi to Qinglong

"Even during the Kangxi reign period the Manchus' military prowess was declining rapidly. As they settled into a peaceful empire, the skills of riding and shooting were hard to maintain."[1]

"China at the end of the eighteenth century was a vast, wealthy empire led by an assured and generally competent ruler. It was not well-integrated, however, making its whole actually less than the sum of its parts."[2]

"Conquest was primarily about the Qianlong emperor's personal power, not the state's, and so the heights of power he attained did not continue for long after he died. With the retrospective decline of Qing power from the Qianlong emperor's peak,it seems as if the longest-ruling emperor in Chinese history took his power with him to the grave."[3]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1644-1796 CE ♥

[Reign Title: English Reign Title/ English Personal Name (Chinese Reign Title/ Chinese Personal Name/ Chinese Temple name)] 1644 CE- 1661 CE: Shunzhi/Fulin Emperor (順治/福臨/清世祖) 1662 CE - 1722 CE: Kangxi/Xuanye Emperor (康熙/玄燁/清聖祖) 1723 CE - 1735 CE: Yongzheng/Yinzhen Emperor (雍正/胤禛/清世宗) 1736 CE - 1795 CE: Qinglong/Hongli Emperor (乾隆/弘曆/清高宗) 1796 CE- 1820 CE: Jiaqing/Yongyan Emperor (嘉慶/顒琰/清仁宗)

"The Qianlong emperor ruled for the longest period in Chinese history. He "retired" as emperor in 1796 so as officially not to exceed the length of his grandfather's 61-year reign, but continued to rule in fact until his death in 1799."[4]

"In the 1580s power began to shift among the Jurchen tribes, moving away from confederation under the leadership of the chieftain sanctioned by the Ming. A Ming force intervened to attack that chieftain's rival and restore the status quo, in the process also killing a father and son of the Aisin Gioro lieage. The Ming recognized Nurhaci, the eldest male orphan of the son, as the legitimate inheritor of his father's title. Nurhaci immediately set out to revenge himself upon the man who had advised the Ming commander to intervene, effecting his death three years later and establishing himself as a successful leader. In 1589 the Ming officially designated him comander-in-chief of the Yalu region, acknowledging his actual strength. His rise to power did no go unchallenged. A two-year conflict with other Jurchen tribes concluded with Nurhaci's decisive victory at Jaka on the Hun River in 1593. After allying with the Western Mongols, he destroyed or incorporated most of the remaining Jurchen tribes over a 20-year-period." [5]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥ Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Tibet were under the Qing dynasty domination. Qing also had tributary states including Nepal, Burma, Siam, Laos, Tonking, and Korea.

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Great Ming ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Late Qing ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ China ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 13,100,000 ♥ km^2

♠ Capital ♣ Beijing ♥

♠ Language ♣ Manchu language; Chinese ♥[6]

General Description

The Qing Dynasty (or Empire of the Great Qing, Great Qing, Manchu Dynasty, Manchus, Jin, Jurchens, Ch'ing Dynasty) was China's last imperial dynasty. The founders of the Qing were descendants of Jurchen Jin rulers. The dynasty was founded by Nurhaci and then led by his son Huang Taiji, but did not become an imperial Chinese dynasty until after Huang Taiji's death.[7] In 1644 CE, Qing forces captured the Ming capital at Beijing from rebels and held a funeral for the last Ming emperor to symbolize Qing inheritance of the Mandate of Heaven.[8]
The Qing faced conflict with rebels and loyalist Ming forces for the next two decades.[9] Ming generals who surrendered were given power over large territories in southern China in exchange for loyalty to the Qing. In 1673 CE, leaders from three major southern feudatories led by Wu Sangui rebelled against Emperor Kangxi when he tried to reduce their power.[10] The Revolt of the Three Feudatories, as this episode is known, lasted eight years.
We divide the Qing Dynasty into two, an Early period (1644-1796 CE) and a Late period (1796-1912 CE). The division is marked by a period of internal turmoil as well as foreign incursions into its territory and economic sphere. In the Early Qing period, China had been prosperous under Kangxi and Qing rule, but by the time of the Opium Wars in the Late Qing, Western technology and industry had surpassed that of China.[11] The fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1911 gave rise to the Republic of China.

Population and political organization

The Qing ruled over an expansive empire, and its bureaucracy was more efficient than that of previous periods.[12] Qing rulers adopted the Chinese bureaucratic system first used in the Han and Tang Dynasties.[13] Before conquering the Ming, the Qing managed its population through a system of hereditary military organizations called the Eight Banners.[14] These became part of the administrative structure of the Qing Dynasty and were only open to those of Manchu descent.[15] In the later Qing period, however, the Eight Banners lost some of their political functions and served to enhance the prestige of the top Qing nobility.[16]
The central government was headed by the emperor and included a 'Grand Council', created by the Yongzheng emperor and expanded by the Qianlong emperor.[17] The Grand Council ruled over the central ministries and provided a way for the emperor to circumvent the official bureaucracy for many decisions.[18]
The Qing provincial government consisted of governors who controlled a hierarchical system of officials, prefects, county chiefs, country magistrates, and clerks.[19] In the early Qing years, provinces were ruled by high ranking officials who were typically of Manchu descent.[20]
The territory of the Qing empire was more than double that of the Ming.[21] Tibetans, Uighurs, Muslims, a number of Mongol groups, Burmese, Thais, and indigenous Taiwanese were incorporated into the Chinese empire.[22]
Three Qing emperors - Kangxi (1662-1722 CE), Yongzheng (1723-1735 CE), and Qianlong (1736-1795 CE) - are historically known as great rulers. During their reigns, China was extremely prosperous.[23] Qianlong is famous for leading ten military expeditions, including campaigns in Taiwan, Burma, Vietnam and Nepal.[24]
Based on Chinese census and registration counts, the population of China in 1749 CE was about 177.5 million.[25] The following century was one of extremely rapid population growth, and by 1851 the population had reached 431.9 million people.[26] Historian James Z. Gao writes that the area within the Qing court's 'sphere of influence' at its peak was 13.1 million square kilometres'.[27]
While the Qing period is not well known for poetry, painting and porcelain as previous periods are, print journalism, theatre and novels flourished under the Qing emperors.[28]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Po-Ju Tuan ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 13,100,000 ♥ km^2

♠ Polity Population ♣ [100,000,000-140,000,000]: 1700 CE ♥ People

143,411,559: 1741 CE; 159,801,551: 1742 CE; 164,454,416: 1743 CE; 166,808,604: 1744 CE; 169,922,127: 1745 CE; 171,896,773: 1746 CE; 171,896,773: 1747CE; 177,495,039: 1748 CE; {177,495,039; 177,538,796}: 1749CE; 179,538,540: 1750 CE; 181,811,359: 1751 CE; 182,857,277: 1752 CE; 183,678,259: 1753 CE; 184,504,493: 1754 CE; 185,612,881: 1755 CE; 186,615,514: 1756 CE; 190,348,328: 1757 CE; 191,672,808: 1758 CE; 194,791,859: 1759 CE; 196,837,977: 1760 CE; {198,214,555; 198,214,553}: 1761 CE; {200,472,461; 201,013,344}: 1762 CE; 204,299,828: 1763 CE; 205,591,017: 1764 CE; 206,993,224: 1765 CE; 208,095,796: 1766 CE; {209,839,546; 209,749,547}: 1767 CE; 210,837,502: 1768 CE; 212,023,042: 1769 CE; 213,613,163: 1770 CE; {214,600,356; 214,647,251}: 1771 CE; 216,467,258: 1772 CE; 218,743,315: 1773 CE; 221,027,224: 1774 CE; 264,561,355: 1775 CE; {268,238,181; 268,238,182}: 1776 CE; 270,863,760: 1777 CE; 242,965,618: 1778 CE; 275,042,916: 1779 CE; 277,554,431: 1780 CE; 279,816,070: 1781 CE; 281,822,675: 1782 CE; {284,033,785; 284,033,805}: 1783 CE; 286,331,307: 1784 CE; 288,863,974: 1785 CE; 291,102,486: 1786 CE; 292,429,018: 1787 CE; {294,852,089; 294,852,189}: 1788 CE; 297,717,496: 1789 CE; {301,487,115; 301,487,114}: 1790 CE; {304,354,110; 304,354,160}: 1791 CE; 307,467,279: 1792 CE; 310,497,210: 1793 CE; {313,281,795; 313,281,295}: 1794 CE; 296,968,968: 1795 CE; 275,662,044: 1796 CE [29]

"300 million in 1795"[30]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [668,200-822,600]: 1700 CE ♥ people. 580,390: 1647 CE; 612,075 : 1657 CE; 668,226: 1671 CE; 822,625: 1711 CE; 890,892: 1781 CE [31] - Hankou : 99,380 people in 1721 CE [32]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 7 ♥ levels.

1. Capital
2. Province seat
3. Tao seat
4. Prefecture seat
5. County seat
6. Town
7. Village

Province: 18 provinces[33]

Tao: Grouping of two or more prefectures for certain purpose, was interposed between the prefectures and provinces[34]

Prefecture (Fu): 180 prefectures[35]

"The Ch'ing judicial system rose upward through a territorial hierarchy of some six different levels. It began with the 1,500 xians or counties (also called districts) and similar regions and then proceeded to the higher levels of the 180 prefectures and the 18 provinces. Thence cases went to the Board of Punishments at the capital and then to a fifth level, the three high courts. The emperor was the top level. He might confirm or reject recommendations concerning capital cases sent up from below.”[36]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 7 ♥ levels. This number equivalent to the number of levels in the provincial government, plus the Emperor.

1. Emperor
"During the Qing conquest of Ming China, the Manchus struck a deal with local elites that allowed them to rule the empire in return for non-interference in local affairs."[37]

_Central government_

2. Grand Council
created by the Yongzheng emperor [38]
"the Qianlong emperor's reign saw the expansion of the Grand Council system begun by his father during the war against the Zunghars. The Grand Council was a tool of imperial centralization that allowed the emperor to bypass the official bureaucracy for many decisions, particularly in prosecuting wars."[39]
3. Ministries

_Provincial government_

3. Zongdu (viceroy, governor general) or Xunfu (governor)
In charge of provinces.
4. Officials in charge of taos
5. Prefects
In charge of prefectures.
6. County chiefs
7. County magistrates
8. Clerks to the above offices

The yamen of the district magistrate (usually the county magistrate, but sometimes prefecture or ting) was the lowest point in the official hierarchy.[40] District Magistrate occupied position 7A in the Qing territorial administrative hierarchy. [41] Mostern confirmed that county should be one level above district, since 'xiang' are subordinate to 'xian,' which is routinely translated to 'county.' [42] There was a prefect level between county magistrates and provincial governors, while district magistrates were too low to be included in a prefecture so they were overseen directly by the provincial governor. Promotion from county magistrate to prefect was possible. [43]

"Western Sichuan was controlled by hereditary chieftains with only the vaguest connections to the Qing government. These non-Han peoples were widely dispersed in mountainous terrain, where one of their main distinguishing features from the Qing court's perspective was their constant internecine fighting."[44]

♠ Religious levels ♣ 3 ♥ levels. Inferred from previous polities.

1. Emperor
2. Ministry of Rites
3. Ritual specialists

♠ Military levels ♣ 10 ♥ levels.

1. Commander-in-chief (Emperor)
2. Provincial governor/Governor-general
3. Provincial military commander/Provincial commander-in-chief/General-in-chief
4. 副將
5. 參將
6. 游擊
7. 都司
8. 守備
9.千總
10. 把總

"Most Chinese troops were incorporated into Green Standard armies that restored order in the countryside. These forces were under the command of provincial governors and tightly constrained in the ambit of their activities. After peace was restored most of these ad hoc measures solidified into regular practice." [45]

One army unit 35,000 men?

1695 CE at Kerulen and Tula rivers. "The Kangxi emperor seized the opportunity to pounce upon Galdan's 20,000 men, sending three armies of 35,000 men each some 700 miles into the steppe. Just as before, he was lucky that as Galdan fled one army he ran into another. Galdan's army was decisively crushed at Jaomodo on 12 June 1696, though he escaped."[46]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ [47]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ "... begun during the Tang dynasty... The rise of religious professionals and soldiers as clearly separate groups was contrary to the previous normative view of society divided into knights (shi, the term that would later be applied to the literati or gentry), farmers, artisans and merchants."[48]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ The number of both clerks and secretaries grew dramatically over the course of the Qing dynasty in response to the growing complexity of governmental tasks. Rowe refers to the "empire-wide clerical diaspora" of literate males part of the state and local level administrative apparatus. [49]

♠ Examination system ♣ present ♥ "success in the civil service exams became a remote possibility for the overwhelming majority of educated men"[50]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ present ♥ Elman's "Chart of Civil Examinations and Degrees during the Ming and Ch'ing" shows promotion through the ranks was achieved by examination.[51]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ e.g. administrative and civil service office buildings, archives and records, etc. [52]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ "the Ch'ing legal code specified heavy penalties for breaches of etiquette in state-sponsored ceremonies (improper conduct, poor preparations, etc.)" [53]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ Qing territorial administration at both the provincial and county levels included functional specialists such as provincial judges and treasurers. In later years, regional satraps assumed unprecedented discretion over the appointments of provincial treasurers and judges, prefects and county magistrates. [54]

♠ Courts ♣ inferred absent ♥ Magistrates heard cases[55] but it seems this would be done in government buildings rather than a specialized courthouse.

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥[56] [57] the Qing regime extended irrigation infrastructure into new areas, and the long- or short-term community enterprises like irrigation systems and other various civil construction projects offered sources of income through their management. [58]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred present ♥ "In Beijing, dwellers had, for generations, been using wells to draw groundwater for their daily life. The alleys in Beijing are called 'hutong' which means 'well' in Mongolian. [...] When the City was reconstructed in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, many 'hutongs' were left without a well. According to contemporary records from the Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, the quality of water in the wells had been low due to salinisation and this led to two results: water was supplied at three levels of quality (for washing, cooking, and drinking tea); and, seling water became a profession in Beijing (Duan, 1989)." [59]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ The 'standard marketing community,' comprising an area of around 20 square miles allowed all villagers within two or three miles of the town access to its periodic markets held every three days. In contrast to officially registered, licensed, and taxed markets at higher levels, these lower-level markets supported unlicensed petty brokers who were self-regulated and self-taxed. Most sellers at any standard market (including peasants) were likely to be itinerants and the standard market town usually possessed certain permanent facilities including eating places, teahouses, wine shops and other shops selling basic items. [60]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ The period of most rapid population growth (1749-1851) was more than a doubling of China’s population. The Qing dynasty had to come up with solutions to increase food production and feed the growing population. High-yielding rice seeds were imported, new crops were introduced from the Americas, grain storage was emphasized, and irrigation works were expanded[61]
♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ In 1644 CE "Dorgon was also sensitive to the need to reopen roads and transportation so that food and money would flow to Beijing." [62]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ During the early Qing, the development of Hangzhou involved the digging and dredging of rivers in the city as well as the river outside Zhangyang Gate, the river from Mija Bridge to Guojun Bridge, the river from Jionglong Bridge to Zhongguan Bridge, the river from Houchou Watergate to Guojun Bridge, and up to the river from Pocang Bridge to Gonguandong Bridge. This project led to an expansion of the rivers which had become clean and clear, flowing smoothly, allowing an increase in boat traffic. [63]
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ e.g. The Grand Canal. Canal-transport continued to play an important economic role in the link between north and south China, and the upkeep and expansion undertaken during the Ming dynasty was continued under the Qing in varying degrees. [64] At the end of the Grand Canal was Hangzhou, connected with Ningbo port through the Eastern Zhejiang Canal, which served as the economic lifeline of the development of Hangzhou. The key to this development was the connection between the water system in the city and the outside through canals and irrigation networks. [65]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ e.g. Canton, Amoy, Fuchow, Ningpo, Shanghai, Jiaozhou Bay, Dalian, Port Arthur. [66] [67]

The most impressive/costly building(s)

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ Qing rulers limited their trading licenses and usually refused them permission to open new mines, except in poor areas.[68] [69]

Information

Measurement System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ present ♥ According to Smith, several "popular" etymologies served as mnemonic devices [70]
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ In 1708 CE, the Kangxi Emperor ordered the compilation to astronomical observations and astrological triangulation manner, using drawing trapezoidal projection method with ratio of 1/400000. Maps depicting the range to the northeast of Sakhalin, southeast to Taiwan, west to the Ili River, north to the North Sea (Lake Baikal), south cliff (now Hainan Island). [71]
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ e.g. continuation of producing official versions of history inherited from the Ming. A textual research method known as Jia Qian Pu Xue evolved during the early Qing and involved the comprehensive and spirited research of documents, texts, and records ranging from history to geography and Confucian Classics. [72]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Chinese
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ present ♥ Chinese
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Chinese

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ e.g. list of general admonitions in mnemonic form [73]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ e.g. almanacs allowing regulation of activities throughout the year based on the daily calendar. [74]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ e.g. Buddhist texts. "By the time of the Qing, ideas introduced through Buddhism had come to permeate popular religious practice. Buddhist texts were printed and circulated in society" in order to spread Buddhist teachings. [75]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ e.g. The Transformations of Wenchang, an influential text for understanding of the god, who had become important enough to be honored in official sacrifices on par with Confucius. According to Woolley, most religious texts of the Chinese tradition are regarded as having been brought into the world through divine intervention at appropriate times in order to enlighten humanity and save it from ill. This highly influential work was reproduced up until the end of the Qing. [76]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ e.g. Records of Everyday Learning, including details of the organizational structure of political powers and their advantages or disadvantages, information of the selection of government officials, and the function of social customs, as well as raised suggestions about the political issues that plagued the late Ming Dynasty. [77]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ e.g. Qingshi (History of the Qing Dynasty) [78]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ e.g. Confucian Classics [79]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ "Printing houses established for the production of religious material also published journals that discussed current affairs and scientific knowledge." This Western influence more common in the Late Qing. [80]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ e.g. Dream of the Red Chamber (紅樓夢), Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio (聊齋志異), The Scholars (儒林外史)

Money

♠ Articles ♣ absent ♥ "Bronze coin constituted the fundamental form of money in China throughout the imperial period." [81]
♠ Tokens ♣ absent ♥ "Bronze coin constituted the fundamental form of money in China throughout the imperial period." [82]
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ non-coined silver, gold, platinum
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ With the development of foreign trade in the Qing dynasty, more foreign silver coins entered into China, including Spanish silver coins, Mexican silver coins, and Japanese silver coins. [83]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Bronze coin for everyday use. In the early Qing, as in the late Ming, the state treated coinage more as a source of revenue than an instrument of sovereign control over the economy. However, the growth of the commercial economy in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries rekindled market demand for coin. [84] Bimetallic system, includes the use of silver taels with copper and bronze coins. When the supply of silver changed as a result of international trade, it caused great financially instability within the system. [85]
♠ Paper currency ♣ present ♥ Qing issued paper currency in both Shunzhi and Xianfeng regime. “Although Chinese had begun using paper money during the Song Dynasty, the Ming had halted the practice in the mid-fifteenth century. Thereafter, except for two brief returns to paper currency by the Qing, in the Xunzhi (1644-61) and the Xianfeng (1851-61) reigns, no Chinese government again issued paper currency until the early twentieth century. The private sector moved to fill the void, and during the 100 or so years before the Opium War, several different instruments of currency, such as bank drafts were used to facilitate currency exchange. True paper money began circulating after various banks and money-changing shops issued paper receipts for deposits for silver and copper; these receipts, backed by a 100 percent reserve, soon began circulating as money.” [86]
♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ During the Qing dynasty, the courier stations set out by the government on the post roads had size names: Yi, Zhan, Tang, Tai, Suo, and Pu, depending on which type of mail they delivered. [87]
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ Postal stations suffered greatly from warfare during the early Qing dynasty, however the reign of emperors Kangxi and Yongzheng saw great improvements to the postal service with the reconstruction of post offices and the establishment of new courier stations in remote and border areas. [88]
♠ General postal service ♣ present ♥ Postal service improved by the government from 1662 to 1735 [89] However, it was not until 1896 that the Great Qing Imperial Post Office was established, providing the first ever national postal service for the general public, which allowed for greater contact with the rest of the world. [90]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ JL ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ e.g. cannon. Cannon made with copper alloy, but due to the scarcity of copper during this era, these cannon were rare. [91]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ e.g. cannon. When cannon were not made of cast iron, they were made of bronze which was less rare and prized than copper. Bronze cannon cast in Shanghai included the 'crouching tiger cannon' a method of manufacture passed down from the Ming Dynasty. [92]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ e.g. cannon. Quality of the iron used in the Qing cannon was poor due to less advanced smelting technology. Furnaces were cooler making it impossible to purify the molten iron. [93]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ e.g. sabres [94]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ "The traditional weapon of the Banner troops was the bow and arrow" [95]
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ The long reflexed composite bow was introduced by the Manchu of the Qing Dynasty and was capable of propelling heavy arrows with great force. They were not well suited for horseback, but their durability and power ensured that they became the standard bow of China, Manchu-dominated Mongolia and Tibet. Typically made with a bamboo core, horn belly, sinew backing, and wooden tips and handle. [96]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ Crossbows remained in use through the Early and Late Qing periods, e.g. chu-ko-nu which was a Chinese repeating crossbow equipped with a magazine to hold bolts. Typically made of wood, sinew wrapping, bamboo and thick rawhide string. [97]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred absent ♥ Catapults were "gradually replaced by the larger and more powerful cannons of the gunpowder age, completely disappearing by the middle of the Ming dynasty in about the 15th or 16th century A.D." [98]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ present ♥ Cannon. [99] Gingall.[100]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ present ♥ Arquebuses. [101] The Green Standard Army, an imperial military unit made of up mostly Han Chinese, relied heavily on firearms by 1700.[102]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ e.g. dagger-axes [103]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ "1674 CE Wu's army in revolt had cannon and sword."[104]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ A fighting weapon used simultaneously with firearms as a "cold weapon." Qing soldiers in combat relied on old-fashioned wall guns and shotguns, in addition to daggers, spears, bows, and arrows. [105]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ Qing "cold weapons" included halberds, tomahawks, hooks, maces, and lances. [106]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ Never used in warfare. [107]
♠ Donkeys ♣ ♥ Mules. [108] Never used in warfare besides as pack animals. [109] Thomas Cressy: It has recently been decided that pack animals should be coded present. No era or polity specific information is included here, so I have removed the absent code as they may have been present. Further coding/expert input is required.
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ "cavalry-rich army of the Manchus." [110]
♠ Camels ♣ ♥ Larger distances were covered by horses or camels [111] Never used in warfare besides as pack animals. [112] Thomas Cressy: It has recently been decided that pack animals should be coded present. No era or polity specific information is included here, so I have removed the absent code as they may have been present. Further coding/expert input is required.
♠ Elephants ♣ ♥ Never used in warfare besides as pack animals. [113] Thomas Cressy: It has recently been decided that pack animals should be coded present. No era or polity specific information is included here, so I have removed the absent code as they may have been present. Further coding/expert input is required.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ Soldiers wore jackets made of thirty to sixty layers of "tough bark-pulp paper." [114]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Brigandine. "The Manchu troops fired their cannons and the infantry, wearing padded cotton armour, advanced behind a wooden barricade." [115]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Rattan shields. [116]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ "Cavalrymen, each responsible for three horses, wore metal helmets adorned with red tassels." [117]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ For high-ranking officers; "copper gilt plates alternating with brocade and copper studs." A lower-ranking soldier wore a long coat of quilted nankeen cotton or a thickly wadded jacket of bark-pulp paper "covered with thin plates of metal surrounded by brass studs." [118]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ skirt with copper or brass studs.
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ "Liang Fen also notes: [Galdan] did not obtain military supplies from distant places, because he was very clever at making high-quality weapons himself. He made armor with small links of chain mail, as light as cloth." [119]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred present ♥ present at least as legacy armour. For high-ranking officers; "copper gilt plates alternating with brocade and copper studs." A lower-ranking soldier wore a long coat of quilted nankeen cotton or a thickly wadded jacket of bark-pulp paper "covered with thin plates of metal surrounded by brass studs." [120]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ coded inferred present for Ming. For high-ranking officers; "copper gilt plates alternating with brocade and copper studs." A lower-ranking soldier wore a long coat of quilted nankeen cotton or a thickly wadded jacket of bark-pulp paper "covered with thin plates of metal surrounded by brass studs." [121]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ "China's seagoing forces consisted of small ships and boats tethered to the military organizations of specific provinces." [122]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ "The pitiful state of the Chinese navy can be attributed to the fact that from the conquest of Taiwan in 1683 until the mid-nineteenth century, China was not faced by any serious threats from the sea." [123] Qing sent several hundred ships to Taiwan in the Battle of Penghu in 1683. Qing policies did not require a strong navy, "so the Chinese navy gradually atrophied over time.[124]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ "Furdan, the commander of the northern army, built a fort at Khobdo, deep in Mongolia." [125]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ [126]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Willow palisade, completed in 1681. [127]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ Digging tunnels and placing mines in them was a common practice for conquering fortresses. [128]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ Used against Qing troops by the Jinchuan. [129]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ Used against Qing troops by the Jinchuan. [130]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ City walls. [131]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ "Furdan, the commander of the northern army, built a fort at Khobdo, deep in Mongolia." [132]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ Armed land and coastal forts, paotai, first built in the 1650s under Emperor Kangxi's reign. "In keeping with Kangxi's emphasis on coastal fortifications, the Yongzheng and the Qianlong emperors both considered a network of forts to be a vital component of the empire's defense network along its maritime frontier." [133]
♠ Long walls ♣ [6259-6700] ♥ km. Ming Great Wall restored and maintained by the Qing.

The Great Wall [134]

8850 km of total fortifications and 6,259km of wall sections, Great Wall measurement in 2009: "The project found that there were wall sections of 6,259km, 359km of trenches, and 2,232km of natural defensive barriers such as hills and rivers."[135]

2012: "The wall measures 21,196.18km (13,170.6956 miles) long based on the latest state survey results, state-run news agency Xinhua reported on Tuesday."[136]. Not sure the ratio of natural barriers, ditches, and long walls here. We code for long walls themselves not fortifications lines in this instance.

Qin Great Wall: 3,000 km
Han Great Wall: 7,200 km
Jin Wall 5,000 km
Ming Wall 6,700 km[137]

"I have tried to examine the evidence, in the first instance, without any fixed prior idea of what it ought to add up to. When one does that, certain fundamental, and I think insurmountable, problems with the ordered concept of 'The Great Wall' itself become clearly evident. Then, rather than attempting somehow to fit recalcitrant evidence into it, I have chosen instead to discard the concept. The basic conviction that has thus emerged from my research is that the idea of the Great Wall of China, familiar to me since childhood, and with which I began my work, is a historical myth."[138]

♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Po-Ju Tuan ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ present ♥ "The Son of Heaven exercised absolute power in theory, but in practice that power was limited by the need to observe ritual correctness and the precedents set by his forebears, the constraints of his personal energy and interest in his job (constraints that had severely curtailed the effectiveness of the late Ming rulers), and not least the limits of communication." [139] The emperor could not rule upon matter that did not come to his attention. Regional and provincial administrators had real decision-making power and often policy initiatives came from them rather than from the throne.
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ inferred present ♥ e.g. literati criticism [140]
♠ Impeachment ♣ absent ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Dynastic system; hereditary nobles, Jurchens "membership in the banners was acquired at birth, making them the institutional home of a martial caste--an exclusive hereditary social group distinguished by a common occupation, soldiering. Membership in this caste played a vital role in the maintenance of Manchu ethnic identity and the perpetuation of Qing rule." [141]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ Mandate of Heaven; emperor is the Son of Heaven, favoured by the gods to rule over the civilian population [142]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ Confucian Morality of Inequality. Qing law influenced by morality of inequality to stabilize a society ordered according to hierarchy of age and male dominance and their decent lines. "As a whole, the Qing judicial system undoubtedly upheld and promoted social inequality," since Confucian morality was one of hierarchy and inequality, so was Confucianized law. [143]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ e.g. Son of Heaven, dynastic system, caste system. "As Confucian morality was one of hierarchy and inequality, so was Confucianized law." [144]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ e.g. caste system "As Confucian morality was one of hierarchy and inequality, so was Confucianized law." [145] According to Rowe, the economic realities of landlordism and tenancy were complicated by issues of personal status; those who did not enjoy elite status or "free" or "good" (liang) status, they belonged to a debased status group or one of personal servitude as "half-human, half-chattel" and experienced a different relationship with Qing law. [146]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ inferred present ♥ e.g. Confucian morality, "goodness conscience," Confucian concept of moral evil relative to society and human action [147] [148] Confucian Morality, Confucian ideal of cultivating moral character, "the ancient Chinese believed that it was the individual's moral character and values that mostly decided his or her behavior and that it was the morality of the rulers and the people as a whole that determined the rise and decline of the country." [149]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ e.g. civil service examination halls, bell and drum towers, Confucian temples, lineage and guild halls, city walls and gates, other community features [150]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [151] [152] [153]

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