CnPeili

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Jill Levine ♥

♠ Original name ♣ ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 7000-5001 BCE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥

♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

The Peiligang culture existed from 7000 to 5000 BC in the Yi-Luo river basin of the Middle Yellow River Valley (modern Henan Province, China). There have been over 100 sites along river banks identified with this Neolithic culture.[1]

Archaeologists have found bone and stone tools and ceramics from the period as well as weapons including harpoons with bone points, stone spears, and arrows which suggests evidence of the use of bows during this time.

The people of the Peiligang culture hunted deer and wild boar and fished using nets. Animal husbandry was also practiced, with pigs, dogs and possibly chickens being reared.[2] Stone tools were used for harvesting millet. Pottery that has been unearthed – some of the oldest pottery found in China - was using for cooking and food storage.

Little is known about the settlements and hierarchies during this period, but archaeologists generally agree that it was an egalitarian society with little to no political organisation and that settlements were small and self-sufficient.[3]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Jill Levine ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ suspected unknown ♥ in squared kilometers. Likely unknown.

♠ Polity Population ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Likely unknown.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [1000-4000] ♥ Estimate based on 50-200 inhabitants per hectare. Tanghu is the largest Peiligang settlement that has been discovered.[4] Peregrine (2001: 283) writes that settlements were between 10,000 and 20,000 square meters.[5]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 1 ♥ levels. "No settlement hierarchy may be observed." (Liu 2005: 163) Larger sites on the alluvial plains and smaller sites in hilly areas".[6]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ absent ♥ Peiligang had no government or chiefs. There was a pile-dwelling in Jiahu Phase I that was not a residence. No ritual or domestic artifacts were found under the structure.[7]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥

♠ Judges ♣ ♥

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ [absent; present] ♥ There was a pile-dwelling in Jiahu Phase I that was not a residence.[8] No ritual or domestic artifacts were found under the structure which signals that it might be a communal space. However, Peregrine (2001: 284) writes that households were independent and self-sustaining.[9]
♠ food storage sites ♣ [absent; present] ♥ There was a pile-dwelling in Jiahu Phase I that was not a residence.[10] No ritual or domestic artifacts were found under the structure which signals that it might be a communal space. However, Peregrine (2001: 284) writes that households were independent and self-sustaining.[11]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥
♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Script ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥

Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Jill Levine ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ absent ♥ Bone and stone tools; ceramics.[12]
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ Bone and stone tools; ceramics.[13]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Bone and stone tools; ceramics.[14]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Bone and stone tools; ceramics.[15]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Harpoons with bone points. [16] Stone spears existed in the Neolithic, however, according to Sawyer (2011) the"Spear appears to have remained relatively uncommon prior to the late Shang."[17] More research needed.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Likely unknown.
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Arrows with bone points point to evidence of some type of bow.[18] Composite bow not known to have been developed at this early time.
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ Composite bow not known to have been developed at this early time.
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Technology first seen in Warring States period [19]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Technology first seen in Warring States period [20]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Earliest references to siege weaponry are from the Warring States Period [21]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Earliest evidence of cannons and firearms is in the Song.[22]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Gunpowder not invented for another few thousand years.

Handheld weapons

Code the variables below as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown. Materials is not important for coding (but mention materials in notes). For example, daggers and swords can be wooden. Nonmilitary implements used in warfare (e.g., pitchforks, scythes) should be coded in the “other” category.

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Likely unknown.
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred absent ♥ Stone axes used as tools, no mention of axes used as weapons in sources.[23][24]
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Microlithic knives used as tools, no mention of knives used as weapons in sources.[25][26]
♠ Swords ♣ absent ♥ No metal.[27]
♠ Spears ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Harpoons with bone points.[28] Stone spears existed in the Neolithic, however, according to Sawyer (2011) the"Spear appears to have remained relatively uncommon prior to the late Shang."</ref>(Sawyer 2011: 428) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RTEZZDY8.</ref> More research needed.
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in sources.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ inferred present ♥ "Dogs and pigs were the domesticated animals."[29]
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥ "Dogs and pigs were the domesticated animals."[30]
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ "Dogs and pigs were the domesticated animals."[31]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ "Dogs and pigs were the domesticated animals."[32]
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ "Dogs and pigs were the domesticated animals."[33]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ absent ♥ Widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c. BCE.[34][35]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ absent ♥ Widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c. BCE.[36][37]
♠ Shields ♣ absent ♥ Widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c. BCE.[38][39]
♠ Helmets ♣ absent ♥ Widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c. BCE.[40][41]
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥ Widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c. BCE.[42][43]
♠ Limb protection ♣ absent ♥ Widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c. BCE.[44][45]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c. BCE.[46][47]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ Widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c. BCE.[48][49]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c. BCE.[50][51]
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ Widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c. BCE.[52][53]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ Jiahu likely had a moat surrounding the site.[54]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in sources.
♠ Long walls ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in sources.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ ♥

Religion and Normative Ideology

Deification of Rulers

(‘gods’ is a shorthand for ‘supernatural agents’)

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

These codes refer to acts undertaken without direct compulsion from or out of adherence to a religious system (religious aspects of prosociality are coded below)

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ ♥

References

  1. (Liu, 2005. 25)Li Liu. 2005. The Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States. Cambridge University Press.
  2. (Liu, 2005. 25)Li Liu. 2005. The Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States. Cambridge University Press.
  3. (Liu, 2005. 25)Li Liu. 2005. The Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States. Cambridge University Press.
  4. (Zhang et al. 2012: e52146) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/WVR8Q6DM.
  5. (Peregrine 2001: 283) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QUL2KD3Z.
  6. (Liu and Chen 2012: 144) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY $ https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Q77FKW2H.
  7. (Liu 2005: 75) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Q77FKW2H?.
  8. (Liu 2005: 75) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Q77FKW2H?.
  9. (Peregrine 2001: 284) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QUL2KD3Z.
  10. (Liu 2005: 75) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Q77FKW2H?.
  11. (Peregrine 2001: 284) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QUL2KD3Z.
  12. (Liu and Chen 2012: 142: 146: 148) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY.
  13. (Liu and Chen 2012: 142: 146: 148) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY.
  14. (Liu and Chen 2012: 142: 146: 148) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY.
  15. (Liu and Chen 2012: 142: 146: 148) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY.
  16. (Peregrine 2001: 283) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QUL2KD3Z.
  17. (Sawyer 2011: 428) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RTEZZDY8.
  18. (Peregrine 2001: 283) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QUL2KD3Z.
  19. (Liang 2005)
  20. (Liang 2005)
  21. (Liang 2005)
  22. (Liang 2005)
  23. (Liu and Chen 2012: 143) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY.
  24. (Peregrine 2001: 283) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QUL2KD3Z.
  25. (Liu and Chen 2012: 143) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY.
  26. (Peregrine 2001: 283) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QUL2KD3Z.
  27. (Liu and Chen 2012: 142: 146: 148) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY.
  28. (Peregrine 2001: 283) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QUL2KD3Z.
  29. (Liu and Chen 2012: 144, 107) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY.
  30. (Liu and Chen 2012: 144, 107) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY.
  31. (Liu and Chen 2012: 144, 107) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY.
  32. (Liu and Chen 2012: 144, 107) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY.
  33. (Liu and Chen 2012: 144, 107) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY.
  34. (Dien 1981) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F82EE9ZF.
  35. (Tin-bor Hui 2005) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CSPZPNV5?.
  36. (Dien 1981) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F82EE9ZF.
  37. (Tin-bor Hui 2005) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CSPZPNV5?.
  38. (Dien 1981) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F82EE9ZF.
  39. (Tin-bor Hui 2005) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CSPZPNV5?.
  40. (Dien 1981) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F82EE9ZF.
  41. (Tin-bor Hui 2005) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CSPZPNV5?.
  42. (Dien 1981) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F82EE9ZF.
  43. (Tin-bor Hui 2005) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CSPZPNV5?.
  44. (Dien 1981) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F82EE9ZF.
  45. (Tin-bor Hui 2005) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CSPZPNV5?.
  46. (Dien 1981) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F82EE9ZF.
  47. (Tin-bor Hui 2005) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CSPZPNV5?.
  48. (Dien 1981) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F82EE9ZF.
  49. (Tin-bor Hui 2005) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CSPZPNV5?.
  50. (Dien 1981) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F82EE9ZF.
  51. (Tin-bor Hui 2005) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CSPZPNV5?.
  52. (Dien 1981) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F82EE9ZF.
  53. (Tin-bor Hui 2005) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CSPZPNV5?.
  54. (Liu 2005: 75) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Q77FKW2H?.