CnLrJin

From Seshat Data Browser
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Po-Ju Tuan; Jill Levine ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Later Jin ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Jin dynasty; Great Jin; Jurchen dynasty ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1207 CE ♥ The largest population in 1207 CE according to History of Jin (金史/Jin Shi)

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1115-1243 CE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Khitan Empire ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Great Yuan ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ China ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 3,600,000 ♥ in squared kilometers


♠ Capital ♣ Huining; Zhongdu; Kaifeng; Caizhou ♥ Huining: 1122-1153CE; Zhongdu: 1153-1214 CE; Kaifeng: 1214-1233; Caizhou: 1233-1234

♠ Language ♣ Middle Chinese; Jurchen; Khitan ♥

General Description

The Later Jin (also known as the Jin Dynasty, Great Jin or Jurchen Dynasty) ruled north China from 1115 to 1234 CE.[1] The dynasty was founded by a confederation of Jurchen tribes from around Manchuria that defeated the Liao in 1115 CE and then ousted the Northern Song.[2]
Jin forces captured the Northern Song capital of Kaifeng and forced the Song south in 1127 CE.[3] The Jin territory included part of Korea in northeast Asia, and Uighur and Tibetan land in western China. In 1153 CE, the Jurchen government moved its capital from Manchuria to modern-day Beijing.
This period was marked by conflict with the Southern Song and the Mongols. The Jurchen government also struggled with economic inflation and flooding.[4] In 1233 CE, the dynasty was conquered by Mongol forces, who then ruled as the Yuan dynasty.[5]

Population and political organization

The traditional Jurchen system of hereditary military chieftains was maintained by the first Jin ruler, Emperor Taizu.[6] After conquering the Liao and Northern Song, later rulers adopted a Chinese-style imperial central government, which was accepted as legitimate by Chinese Confucian scholars.[7] The Jin imperial government copied a number of Song institutions, including the nine-rank system for officials and recruitment by civil service examinations.[8]
The Jin Dynasty was the first period in Chinese history in which large populations of ethnic Han citizens were ruled by an outsider government.[9] While many Jurchen people moved from Manchuria into China during Jin rule,[10] they still only made up about 10 percent of the population of Jin Dynasty China.[11] The population of the Jin dynasty was between 45 million and 54 million people in 1200 CE.[12][13]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Po-Ju Tuan ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 3,600,000 ♥ in squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ [45,000,000-54,000,000]: 1200 CE ♥ People. 32,700,000: 1142 CE; {44,705,086; 39,663,400; 36,989,014}: 1187 CE; 45,447,900: 1190 CE; 48,490,400: 1195 CE; {45,816,079; 53,532,151}: 1207 CE; 53,720,000: 1210 CE. [14] [15]

A Chinese source believes 53 million is too high, because similar dynasties had populations between 30 million and 40 million. "金朝人口数量(一)人口总置金朝人口发展,在其统治的北方地区,达到了比历史上几个盛大朝代更高的水平。其他各朝均只 3000 多万或 4000 多万,金朝则达到了5300 多万。对此或有不可理解,或对统计数字有怀疑." [16]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ ♥ levels.


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels.

1. Polity: Emperor
2. Central Secretariat
3. Lu/Fu governor
4. Zhou (country subdivision) governor
5. County governor

♠ Religious levels ♣ 3 ♥ levels. Inferred from previous polities.

1. Emperor
2. Ministry of Rites
3. Ritual specialists

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present ♥ "By the tenth century, soldiers, to the intense consternation of statesmen, were wholly divorced from any productive activities and earned their livings by skill at arms. Despite many attempts to replace this "mercenary" system, it remained in place until the end of imperial times."[17]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ "By the tenth century, soldiers, to the intense consternation of statesmen, were wholly divorced from any productive activities and earned their livings by skill at arms. Despite many attempts to replace this "mercenary" system, it remained in place until the end of imperial times."[18]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ "... begun during the Tang dynasty... The rise of religious professionals and soldiers as clearly separate groups was contrary to the previous normative view of society divided into knights (shi, the term that would later be applied to the literati or gentry), farmers, artisans and merchants."[19]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ present ♥ [20] [21] [22]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ present ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ 《皇统制》, 《泰和律》[23]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ present ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ [24]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥ Unknown.
♠ markets ♣ present ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ e.g. Marco Polo Bridge
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ present ♥ The earliest known written documentation of the Chinese abacus dates to the 2nd century BC [25]
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ present ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ e.g. 《紀元曆》, 《重修大明曆》
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ e.g. 《務本新書》、《士農必用》were the major agriculture literature
♠ History ♣ present ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ e.g. 《測圓海鏡》,《益古演段》
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥ As Northern Song.
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥ As Northern Song.
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥ Unknown.
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ inferred present ♥ As Northern Song.
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred present ♥ As Northern Song.

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ China had record of relay station as early as Zhou (700-1000 BCE)
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥ Unknown.

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Po-Ju Tuan ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ Jin relied on Chinese infantry who fought with swords and crossbow [26]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ "Trebuchets played an important role in the fighting between the Southern Song and the Jin."[27]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ {absent; present} ♥ "early versions of siege crossbows and traction trebuchets may be noted in the accounts of the wars of the Qin and Han dynasties, and appear in the early military writings associated with the name of Mo Zi."[28] "Of the date of the introduction of the counterweight trebuchet to China there can be no doubt. It occurred in 1272, during one of the greatest sieges of Chinese history, at Xiangyang, where the Mongols besieged the Southern Song for five years." [29]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ [absent; present] ♥ Fire-spear as a primitive firearm: "By the early thirteenth century, shrapnel of various kinds was regularly added to the gunpowder of a fire-spear." However, "... the weapon was not conceived of as a missile arm."[30] Fire-tube as a primitive firearm. "The Bandit-striking Penetrating Tube: Use iron to make a barrel three feet long with a handle two feet long. Infantry use this. In one discharge the pellet is able to strike a bandit at a distance of three hundred paces (five hundred yards)." "Needham dates this particular section of the text, the Fire Dragon Classic (Huolong Jing), to the first half of the fourteenth century, but believed that the quoted passage is "probably as old as 1200."" Needham also believes the stated range is an exaggeration and that the tube fired multiple pellets rather than one. [31] "The earliest known specimen of a gun was excavated in July of 1970 in Acheng county, Heilongjiang province. Made of bronze, it is 34 centimeters long, weighs 3.5 kilograms and has three distinct parts to its length: a barrel, powder chamber, and socket for a handle at the rear end. It has been dated no later than 1290." [32]Are these references referring to a Later Jin or Southern Song practices; neither, or both? ET

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Jin relied on Chinese infantry who fought with swords and crossbow [33]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ Never used in warfare. [34]
♠ Donkeys ♣ ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Calvary. [35]
♠ Camels ♣ ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ "The Song army with its large oceangoing warships, wreaked havoc on the small Jin vessels [36] [37]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ present ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred absent ♥ Jin were never able to build an effective navy. "The Song army with its large oceangoing warships, wreaked havoc on the small Jin vessels [38] [39]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ [40]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥ e.g. Great Wall
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ [41]
♠ Long walls ♣ [1,700-5,000] ♥ km. "

The Chin kingdom (1115-1234) certainly built walls. Some of this extensive work was begun before 1138; large-scale work was carried out in 1181; and additional construction was completed in 1198. The Chin walls known as wai-po in Chinese and ongu to the nomads, were in modern Inner and Outer Mongolia, far to the north of the present wall. "The T'ang built no walls, nor did the Sung." [42]

Qin Great Wall: 3,000 km
Han Great Wall: 7,200 km
Jin Wall 5,000 km (echeloned)
Ming Wall 6,700 km[43]

Jin Great Wall: 1,700km[44]

"I have tried to examine the evidence, in the first instance, without any fixed prior idea of what it ought to add up to. When one does that, certain fundamental, and I think insurmountable, problems with the ordered concept of 'The Great Wall' itself become clearly evident. Then, rather than attempting somehow to fit recalcitrant evidence into it, I have chosen instead to discard the concept. The basic conviction that has thus emerged from my research is that the idea of the Great Wall of China, familiar to me since childhood, and with which I began my work, is a historical myth."[45]

♠ Modern fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Jurchen dynasty.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [46] [47] [48]

References

  1. (Perkins 1999, 246) Dorothy Perkins. 1999. Encyclopedia of China. New York: Routledge.
  2. (Ebrey 1996, 167) Patricia Buckley Ebrey. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  3. (Perkins 1999, 246) Dorothy Perkins. 1999. Encyclopedia of China. New York: Routledge.
  4. (Perkins 1999, 246) Dorothy Perkins. 1999. Encyclopedia of China. New York: Routledge.
  5. (Perkins 1999, 246) Dorothy Perkins. 1999. Encyclopedia of China. New York: Routledge.
  6. (Theobald 2000) Theobald Ulrich. 2000. 'Jin Empire Government, Administration and Law'. Chinaknowledge.de. http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Song/jinn-admin.html. Accessed 15 March 2017.
  7. (Holcombe 2011, 135) Charles Holcombe. 2011. A History of East Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  8. (Theobald 2000) Theobald Ulrich. 2000. 'Jin Empire Government, Administration and Law'. Chinaknowledge.de. http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Song/jinn-admin.html. Accessed 15 March 2017.
  9. (Perkins 1999, 246) Dorothy Perkins. 1999. Encyclopedia of China. New York: Routledge.
  10. (Holcombe 2011, 135) Charles Holcombe. 2011. A History of East Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  11. (Holcombe 2011, 135) Charles Holcombe. 2011. A History of East Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  12. 中國文明史‧宋遼金時期‧金代》〈第十一章 民俗文化與社會精神風貌〉: 第2001頁-第2022頁
  13. 中国人口发展史》.葛剑雄.福建人民出版社.
  14. (《中国人口发展史》.葛剑雄.福建人民出版社.)
  15. (《中國文明史‧宋遼金時期‧金代》〈第十一章 民俗文化與社會精神風貌〉: 第2001頁-第2022頁.)
  16. (《中国人口通史》2000. 路遇, 滕泽之. 山东人民出版社)
  17. (Lorge 2005, 7)
  18. (Lorge 2005, 7)
  19. (Lorge 2005, 7)
  20. 孙孝伟. (2007). 金朝科举制度探析. 长春师范学院学报, 26(2), 42-45.
  21. 韩育臻. (2007). 金朝文化政策成因探析 [J]. 青岛大学师范学院学报, 4, 78-84.
  22. 刘达科. (2007). 金朝科举与文学. 社会科学辑刊, (3), 245-250.
  23. 叶潜昭. (1972). 金律之研究. 台湾商务印书馆 1977 年版.
  24. 关树东《金代的水利与社会经济》
  25. Ifrah, Georges (2001). The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 978-0471396710.
  26. (Peers 2013, 217)
  27. (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.
  28. (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.
  29. (Turnbull 2012, 33) Stephen Turnbull. 2012. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.
  30. (Lorge 2011, 37)
  31. (Lorge 2011, 37-38)
  32. (Lorge 2011, 69)
  33. (Peers 2013, 217)
  34. (North China Workshop 2016)
  35. (Peers 2013, 217)
  36. (Lorge, 2012, 87)
  37. 《中國通史 宋遼金元史》〈第四章 南宋與金-中國南北的再分裂〉 第63頁-第79頁.
  38. (Lorge, 2012, 87)
  39. 《中國通史 宋遼金元史》〈第四章 南宋與金-中國南北的再分裂〉 第63頁-第79頁.
  40. (Peers 2013, 220)
  41. (Peers 2013, 220)
  42. (Waldron, Arthur. 1983. The Problem of the Great Wall. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 43(2): 654)
  43. (Lindesay 2007: 22. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/KXVKSLP8)
  44. (Kradin, Nikolay. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. May 2020. Email)
  45. (Walden 1990: 6. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/V7FDTWZ5)
  46. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  47. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  48. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html

王明前. (2012). 辽金二朝财政体系初探. 长春金融高等专科学校学报, 2, 002.

孙孝伟. (2007). 金朝科举制度探析. 长春师范学院学报, 26(2), 42-45

韩育臻. (2007). 金朝文化政策成因探析 [J]. 青岛大学师范学院学报, 4, 78-84.

刘达科. (2007). 金朝科举与文学. 社会科学辑刊, (3), 245-250.

叶潜昭. (1972). 金律之研究. 台湾商务印书馆 1977 年版. 关树东《金代的水利与社会经济》

李勇. (2005). 中国古代太阳中天观测及二至点测算精度. 天文学进展, 23(1), 70-79. 《中國通史 宋遼金元史》〈第四章 南宋與金-中國南北的再分裂〉 第63頁-第79頁

Bol, P., C. Cook, G. Feinman, V.Mair, P.Sabloff, and L.Xie. “Seshat North China Workshop.” Tampa, Florida. January 15-17 2016. Workshop.

Deng, Gang. 2002. The Premodern Chinese Economy: Structural Equilibrium and Capitalist Sterility. New York: Routledge.

Eastman, Lloyd. 1988. Family, Fields and Ancestors: Constancy and Change in China’s Social and Economic History 1550-1949. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Holcombe, Charles. 2011. A History of East Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ifrah, Georges (2001). The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 978-0471396710.

Liang, J. 2005. Chinese Siege Warfare: Mechanical Artillery & Siege Weapons of Antiquity. Da Pao Publishing. http://www.grandhistorian.com/chinesesiegewarfare.

Lorge, P A. 2008. The Asian Military Revolution: From Gunpowder to the Bomb. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

Lorge, P. 2005. War, Politics and Society in Early Modern China, 900-1795. Routledge. London.

Lorge P. 2012. Water Forces and Naval Operations (81-96). A Military History of China. Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky.

Perkins, Dorothy. 1999. Encyclopedia of China. New York: Routledge.

Theobald, Ulrich. “Jin Empire Government, Administration and Law.” Chinaknowledge.de http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Song/jinn-admin.html Accessed March 15, 2017.

Peers, C. 2013. Battles of Ancient China. Pen and Sword.

Waldron, Arthur. 1983. The Problem of the Great Wall. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 43(2): 643-663.

《中國文明史‧宋遼金時期‧金代》〈第十一章 民俗文化與社會精神風貌〉: 第2001頁-第2022頁.

《中国人口发展史》.葛剑雄.福建人民出版社

《中国人口通史》2000. 路遇, 滕泽之. 山东人民出版社