CnJinSA

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Jin ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Chin; Tang; Chunqiu ♥

Chunqiu translates as ‘Springs and Autumns’, used to denote period of multistate competition after fall of Zhou hegemony; the Zuo zhuan mentions 148 ‘states’ that were founded by Zhou royal lineage at break-up of Western Zhou kingdom; 15 major states (Qi, Jin, Qin, Chu, Lu, Cao, Zheng, Song, Xu, Chen, Wey, Yan, Cai, Wu, Yue) [1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 632 bce ♥

Duke Wen expands centralizing reforms, Jin defeats Chu nd claims 'leadership of the central states'[2]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 780-404 bce ♥

780 - Marquis Wen becomes independent ruler of Jin state after breakup of Zhou dynasty; 475 - death of Duke Ding after period of civil unrest, leading to partitioning of Jin state among various elite clans ("Three Jins" 三晉 period). Jin more or less ends as independent state under Duke Lie in 404/3 when Zhou King recognized Han, Wei, and Zhao rulers as controlling most of Jin territory, leading to onset of Warring States period

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ loose ♥

though was proto-centralization process in most Spring Autumn states over course of this period[3]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance; vassalage ♥

Alliance: Ba system - Ba was title assumed at different times by different lineage heads of different states to signify their leadership over the other splinter Zhou kingdoms; for instance, Zheng Zhuang Gong of Zheng is said to have first taken the status (although the term Ba was not yet in use) in 707 bce after defeating armies of Chen, Wey, and Cai. Qi under Huan Gong then supplanted Zheng as the Ba hegemon in the early 7th c bce[4]. “at these conferences the attending delegates usually swore their support for the Zhou feudal structure as spelled out in formal agreements.”[5]

vassalage: numerous ‘barbarian’ tribes (Man, Yi, Rang, Di); namely, groups not directly associated with the Zhou ruling families which served as subservient garrison states as “part of the Zhou feudal network.” [6]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Western Zhou ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ elite migration ♥ Zhou dynasty broken up into several independent kingdoms, mainly ruled by former enfeoffed nobles of Zhou period
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Zhao; Wei; Qin ♥ during the Warring States period
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ China ♥ Faulkenhausen notes that the material culture of all of the Spring Autumn period states is remarkably consistent, following Western Zhou traditions. Especially notable in the assemblages of goods from elite burials in the various states[7] “In a milieu where adherence to codified rules of ritual consumption and behavior was central to political and religious activity at any level, it is legitimate to argue that such archaeologically observable phenomena as the use of more or less uniform sets of ritual paraphernalia, and the adoption of largely comparable burial customs throughout a wide area, may reflect an underlying shared system of politicoreligious values, as well as homologies in the social organization of elites.” [8]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 9,000,000 ♥ km. Approximate scale of modern country of China (which covers roughly same area as ‘cultural zone’ of early imperial period).

♠ Capital ♣ Jiang ♥

♠ Language ♣ Chinese ♥

General Description

The Spring and Autumn period was a period of the Eastern Zhou dynasty in which strong vassal states competed for dominance.[9] When King You of Zhou was killed by an allied force of Quan Rong barbarians and the state of Shen, King Ping moved the capital to Luoyang in 770 BCE and founded the Eastern Zhou dynasty.[10] The weak Eastern Zhou state was responsible for diplomacy and rituals, while governmental authority lay in the hands of large vassal states.[11] There were 15 major vassal states in the Spring and Autumn period, but by the mid-7th century BCE the region was dominated by the Qi, Jin, Qin, and Chu states.[12] The period is marked by constant warfare between different states.[13]
The Spring and Autumn period takes its name from the Confucian book Chunqiu, which chronicles events from 722 to 429 BCE.[14] During this time, the moral values of Confucius helped bring China into the 'Axial Age'.[15] The use of bronze agricultural tools became more widespread in China and there is evidence of the use of steel and iron in the middle and late Spring and Autumn period.[16] Coinage appeared in this period, and there are some indications that individuals could own land.[17]
The Jin state dominated the Spring and Autumn period from 636 to 628 BCE. Duke Xian of Jin (676-651 BCE) conquered 16 small states in modern Shanxi.[18] His son, Duke Wen, was given the title of ba ('senior' or 'hegemon')[19] by the Zhou king after defeating the encroaching state of Chu in 632 BCE.[20]
The Jin state covered an estimated 160,000 square kilometres. The state was located in modern Shanxi,[21] and extended east and north from the Yellow River.[22]

Population and political organization

The multi-state Spring and Autumn system changed the feudal structure of China. In the Western Zhou period, the political elite was made up of kings, feudal lords, and hereditary ministers.[23] In the Spring and Autumn period, a class of knights and warriors became the political ruling class.[24] Intellectuals served as both government officials and 'cultural carriers'.[25] States became more centralized as the central government continued to weaken.[26]
In the ba system, first institutionalized in 651 BCE, the Zhou king bestowed the title of ba on the ruler of the vassal state that represented the Zhou court in war.[27][28] However, this system of political organization began to weaken in the 6th century BCE.[29][30]
Substantiated estimates for the population of the Jin state are lacking.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Enrico Cioni ♥ EC coded most of this section using data gathered by EALT for the Western Zhou and the Chu.

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 160,000 ♥ km^2

size of State of Jin by 5th c. bce

Hsu: “An expansion of territory is a characteristic of all major states, and the four most powerful states of the Spring and Autumn period — Qi, Jin, Chu, and Qin - all expanded dramatically. Qi Huan Gong annexed 35 neighboring states to become the first ba. Jin Xian Gong took 17 states and subjugated 38, paving the way for Jin to lead the Zhou world for generations. Qin Mu Gong fUS-^ (659—621 B.C.) combined 12 other states to extend its territory in the west. During the reign of King Zhuang of Chu (613-591 B.C.), Chu annexed no fewer than 26 states, many of which were former important Zhou states, and thus became the main threat to the Zhou 
world.' Of 148 states that appear in the chronicles of the Spring and Autumn period," the number extinguished by these four major powers adds up to 1*”[31]

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥

1. Capital city
2. town
3. feudal estates
4. village

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 4 ♥

1. Ruler
2. Court officials (Chancellor, Secretaries, etc)
3. Provincial / commandery governors; military generals; local elite lineages
4. town heads

NB: unclear exactly how much administrative hierarchy there was at the local (town, village, etc) level, but the number 4 based on states during this period having short chains-of-command and less state penetration into the local levels relative to later periods after the ‘centralizing’ reforms of the Qi, Chu, and Qin (DH)

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥

♠ Military levels ♣ 5 ♥ The following inferred from what has been inferred from contemporary polities:

1. Ruler

2. Minister of War
3. Generals
Elite families in charge of chariot forces
4. Officer level
5. Individual soldier

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred present for contemporary polities [32].

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred present for contemporary polities [33].

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred present for contemporary polities [34].

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥

"During the Spring and Autumn Period, the powerful states such as Qin and Chu set up a new administrative system of provinces and counties ... These governors in the provinces and counties comprised the first bureaucracy in Chinese history."[35]

"in terms of administration, aristocratic politics was transformed into bureaucratic politics as the hereditary seigniors were replaced by professional bureaucrats."[36]

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥ "Before the Northern Sung, the principal means of entry into the social and political elite was by official recommendation or kinship relations." [37]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ present ♥ "In respect to selecting officials, the appointment of capable and talented people emerged as a trend in the Spring and Autumn Period."[38]

"During the Spring and Autumn Period, the powerful states such as Qin and Chu set up a new administrative system of provinces and counties in each of the places they conquered through wars of annexation. In general, counties were based in the center of the state, while provinces were based in the outlying areas. The governorships of the provinces and counties were no longer hereditary positions. Rather governors were appointed and dismissed directly by the kings or lords. These governors in the provinces and counties comprised the first bureaucracy in Chinese history."[39]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from presence of administrative system of states- "During the Spring and Autumn Period, the powerful states such as Qin and Chu set up a new administrative system of provinces and counties in each of the places they conquered through wars of annexation. In general, counties were based in the center of the state, while provinces were based in the outlying areas. The governorships of the provinces and counties were no longer hereditary positions. Rather governors were appointed and dismissed directly by the kings or lords. These governors in the provinces and counties comprised the first bureaucracy in Chinese history."[40]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥

"In the late Spring and Autumn Period, the legal system had reached a turning point - provisions of punishments changed into a systematic code, which came to be recorded on two occasions: the State of Zhen had the penal code prepared by Zi Chan inscribed onto bamboo tablets (536 BC); the State of Jin had the penal code prepared by Zhao Yang inscribed onto tripods (513 BC)."[41]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred present ♥ "In the late Western Zhou and Spring and Autumn periods, several inscriptions record decisions in legal cases, most commonly disputes over land."[42] - who made the decisions in legal cases?

♠ Courts ♣ inferred present ♥ "In the late Western Zhou and Spring and Autumn periods, several inscriptions record decisions in legal cases, most commonly disputes over land."[43] - where were trials held for legal cases?

"Court" for trials existed in Spring and Autumn period (reference not specific to Chu).[44]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Developed in Yellow River basin after Shang. [45]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥ Unknown. "Besides the more well-known extensive irrigation works and man-made transport canals linking up the major rivers, the provision of water supplies to its cities formed the third important element of China's ancient water civilization."[46] "The entire underground water supply pipeline system of Yangcheng [Warring States Period?] was discovered in archaeological excavations (Figure 8.2), providing important physical evidence of early water supply of cities in ancient China."[47]
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ "During the Western Zhou Dynasty, handicrafts and commerce came under government monopoly, and a system was instituted whereby craftsmen and merchants ceased to be household retainers and became government subjects."[48] "It was not until the Western Zhou period (1027-771 bc) that professional merchants emerged, mainly to serve feudal aristocrats by supplying them with the desired commodities. Only in the Spring and Autumn (770-403 BC) and the Warring States period (403-211 BC), when agricultural technology was much improved, did households retain sufficient surpluses that professional merchants found it profitable to serve the ordinary people (Sa 1966:29)"[49] "During the Zhou dynasty (1134-256 BC) onward, merchants' guilds based on family relationships came into being in China (Chuan 1978)."[50] However, before the Sui and Tang, "merchants could open stores only in restricted locations, and merchant guilds were localized."[51]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ "The basic wealth of the Spring and Autumn states was thus in grain, and grain was stored by the state as a hedge against famine. On two occasions, grain was transferred between states for famine relief ... These interstate transactions show that states had considerable storage capacity, as well as substantial transport capacity, for food supplies."[52]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ Administration existed to manage roads. "As early as the Shang period, roads were controlled by a special official, and in the Zhou period, traffic had reached such proportions that regulations were introduced for particularly crowded crossroads and reckless driving was prohibited. ... they are said to have put roads into five categories: pedestrian roads for people and pack animals, roads for handcarts, roads for single carts, roads on which two carts could pass, and main roads wide enough to take three vehicles abreast."[53]
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred present ♥ "As early as the Shang period, roads were controlled by a special official, and in the Zhou period, traffic had reached such proportions that regulations were introduced for particularly crowded crossroads and reckless driving was prohibited."[54] Must have been stone or wooden bridges over rivers and streams.
♠ Canals ♣ inferred present ♥ Present for Western Zhou [55]
♠ Ports ♣ ♥ Unknown.

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥ Unknown.
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ inferred present ♥ Presence of written records, administration etc.
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ [56] However, Spring and Autumn polities wrote on perishable materials such as silk[57], which means that texts are less likely to be preserved.
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ [58] However, Spring and Autumn polities wrote on perishable materials such as silk[59], which means that texts are less likely to be preserved.
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ present ♥ Ancient Chinese language.
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Ancient Chinese language.

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ "During the Spring and Autumn Period, the powerful states such as Qin and Chu set up a new administrative system of provinces and counties ... These governors in the provinces and counties comprised the first bureaucracy in Chinese history."[60]
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the fact that contemporary polities wrote on perishable materials such as silk[61], though this does mean that texts are less likely to be preserved, and that they had ritual calendars [62].
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥ Does not seem to have been part of Ancient Chinese religious system in general to have sacrilized texts, not including collected sayings of wise men and sages (Confucius, etc.), since these seem to be more philosophical than ‘word of god’ type works.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ religious and political philosophy, esp. Confucianism, developed in this period [63]
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the fact that immediately preceding polities had produced practical literature, e.g. Shanghsu (Book of Documents), Yi Zhoushu (Zhou documents). [64] However, Spring and Autumn polities wrote on perishable materials such as silk[65], which means that texts are less likely to be preserved
♠ History ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the fact that immediately preceding polities wrote abbreviated histories on vessels: "The Shi Qiang pan (Figure 23) is one of the most important Western Zhou bronze vessels due to its 270 character long inscription. In two columns, it provides an outline of the first seven Western Zhou kings with a similar account of four generations from the Wei family [65]."[66] However, Spring and Autumn polities wrote on perishable materials such as silk[67], which means that texts are less likely to be preserved
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ religious and political philosophy, esp. Confucianism, developed in this period[68]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the fact immediately preceding polities produced scientific literature [69] However, Spring and Autumn polities wrote on perishable materials such as silk[70], which means that texts are less likely to be preserved
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the fact that immediately preceding polities produced poetry [71]. However, Spring and Autumn polities wrote on perishable materials such as silk[72], which means that texts are less likely to be preserved


Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥ Coded as present in preceding Late Shang polity.
♠ Tokens ♣ present ♥ Cowrie shells, tortoise shells used as currency in all Spring Autumn states from Western Zhou period[73] [74]
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥[75]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred absent. Coinage invented in Anatolia around time of the Spring and Autumn Period but such coins, even if they reached China, more likely would have been prized for precious metal content.
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not until Warring States Period at the earliest: "The earliest minted form of currency was the bu, a coin cast of bronze in the form of a miniature double-pronged digging stick or hoe, complete with hollow socket. They are particularly densely concentrated in the vicinity of the Eastern Zhou capital of Luoyang and in the states of Han, Zhao, and Wei."[76]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ Would not be invented for another couple thousand years.

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥ Basic system of messaging must have been present for the Jin government, as it probably was for the Chu.
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred present ♥ From the Shang period roads considered important enough to be "controlled by a special official"[77] but references to post usually begin with the Qin's First Emperor who "constructed post roads across his empire".[78] However, Confucius (551-479 BCE) said: "News of good deeds travels faster than the mail"[79] which strongly implies a postal system was present at his time. One may infer from the importance of roads a basic postal system existed earlier.
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥ Unlikely literacy high enough for a general postal service to be necessary.

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Dan Hoyer ; Edward Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Required for bronze.
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ [80]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Iron introduced from Central Asia in roughly 500 bce. Mainly used in agricultural tools, but adapted to swords and other military pieces in Chu and then the other kingdoms by the later 4th c bce. [81] [82]
♠ Steel ♣ [absent; present] ♥ "During the Spring & Autumn period, China developed steel and iron-made weaponry, and as the raw iron castings technique was widely practiced - and the ‘folded hundred times steel’ casting method was on the rise, along with various polishing techniques for steel - Chinese steel weapons were very much on the ascendant."[83]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from previous polity.
♠ Atlatl ♣ inferred absent ♥ Unlikely, New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ Known from the Zhou period, when: "The conscripted foot soldiers wore sheepskin jackets and used slings and bows with bronze-tipped arrows."[84]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from previous polity. Perhaps actually absent for warfare - if the more powerful composite bow is the weapon referred to in the sources.
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ [85]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ "Crossbows first appeared in Chu in the early fifth century BC and were in general use in the fourth century BC."[86] From 340 BCE.[87]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ "Han era scholars identify what seems to be an early Spring and Autumn period catapult called Hui used by the King of Zhou against the Duke of Zheng in 707 B.C."[88] siege-warfare in this period seems to have not involved specialized equipment / technology, more brute force and trickery by besieging armies [89]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ inferred absent ♥ first known use of gravity powered siege engine was under Byzantines, just under two thousand years after this period.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Gunpowder not present until a later period.
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Gunpowder not present until a later period.

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ The preceding Western Zhou had the spalling hammer.[90]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Battle axes.[91]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Daggers [92]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ adapted from steppe regions in sixth c bce[93] "Yang Hong (1980: 116) traces the bronze sword back to certain bronze daggers of the Western Zhou period... It was not until the Eastern Zhou period that the bronze sword became a common weapon."[94] In the Shang period, there were bronze swords[95] and a sword has been found as early as the Erligang Culture.[96]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ "A spear was also one of the combat weapons in the Western Zhou period, but it was not the principal one"[97]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ makeshift- dagger-axes mounted on 18 foot long shafts [98] Standard equipment for Western Zhou soldier included the dagger-axe.[99]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ Never used in warfare. [100]
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ Used as pack animals. [101]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Good conditions for horse-breeding in the Zhou homeland.[102] The Zhou used chariots in battle drawn by four horses [103]
♠ Camels ♣ ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ Wood used as armour, e.g. for shields, unlikely to have been preserved.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ "Crew and horses could be armoured with tough rhinoceros hide, either in the form of scales swen onto a cloth backing, or made into one-piece sleeveless coats like the leather 'buff coats' of seventeenth century Europe" [104] Inferred from Zhou/Shang: there is no evidence that the Zhou were armed differently than the Shang (evidence of helmets, shields, and leather armor used in the Shang).[105]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ Standard equipment for a soldier under the preceding Western Zhou included the shield.[106]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ bronze helmets, reserved for the aristocracy [107]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ Traditional view: "Mounted warfare in Chinese armies began in the sixth century BCE, while the increasing projectile power of composite bows and especially the crossbow from the fifth century BCE led to the rise of heavy armour."[108] However, there is evidence heavy armour existed in the preceding Western Zhou: "... suit has yet been unearthed, but a bronze breastplate and two bronze backplates have been found in a Western Zhou ..."[109]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ In the preceding Western Zhou period protective armour equipment existed in addition to helmets and shields.[110]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Mounted warfare in Chinese armies began in the sixth century BCE, while the increasing projectile power of composite bows and especially the crossbow from the fifth century BCE led to the rise of heavy armour."[111]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Mounted warfare in Chinese armies began in the sixth century BCE, while the increasing projectile power of composite bows and especially the crossbow from the fifth century BCE led to the rise of heavy armour."[112]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred present ♥ In the preceding Western Zhou period "more flexible corsets began to be fabricated by employing lamellar construction techniques that linked small leather panels together with hempen cord."[113]
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ Traditional view: "Mounted warfare in Chinese armies began in the sixth century BCE, while the increasing projectile power of composite bows and especially the crossbow from the fifth century BCE led to the rise of heavy armour."[114] However, there is evidence heavy armour existed in the preceding Western Zhou: "... suit has yet been unearthed, but a bronze breastplate and two bronze backplates have been found in a Western Zhou ..."[115]


Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ [116]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ e.g. Qin built fortifications in seventh c bce along Yellow River to defend against raids by northern Di tribes[117]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ "The number of cities with earth fortifications grew rapidly near the end of the Western Zhou."[118]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ Used against Ch'u by Tsin in Battle of Yen-ling 575 bce. [119]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ Evidence of a moat at the Yan state capital during the preceding Western Zhou period.[120] There was some siege warfare so it is possible some Chu towns had moat defenses. There would have been no lack of water nearby to fill the moat.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ Stone walls present in the Neolithic period [121] However most walls made of stamped earth during this period.[122]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ e.g. Yancheng in Wujin, “an irregularly shaped site some 850 m in diameter, surrounded by three roughly concentric tiers of walls and moats and accessible only by boat.” [123]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km. Any linear walls built in Chu territory south of the Yellow River?
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ No gunpowder at this time.

Other technologies

Canals used for military transport [124]

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ absent ♥ [125]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ inferred present ♥ Seems that landed nobility and elite families, with great social, religious, and economic status, retained some power to constrain executive by withholding support, resources, or supporting coups. But the power of the traditional elite (the ‘Zhou aristocracy’) was systematically diminished in most polities during the Spring Autumn period[126]
♠ Impeachment ♣ absent ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Dynastic rule.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥rulers during this period not treated as gods, but certainly were legitimated by divine authority, uphold traditional worship (ancestor cult and appeasing Di) [127]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ it was during the imperial period, when the first Emperor Shi Huangdi took the title of di (supreme divine being) [128] You don’t usually talk about rulers as gods in Chinese. If we define deities as those who are worshipped ‒ the Chinese emperor receives respect but he does not receive sacrifice.[129]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ [130] Confucian traditions stressed the need for rulers to govern for the sake and benefit of the governed people[131] [132] [133] But no sense of equality between groups

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ [134] no sense in any major Chinese religious tradition of any strong aversion to social hierarchy
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ elites definitely had privilages separate from 'commoners' [135]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ inferred absent ♥ introduced later, during growth of Confucian / Buddhist ideals [136]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [137] [138] [139]

References

  1. (Hsu 1999, 547)
  2. (Tin-bor Hui 2005, 60)
  3. (Hsu 1999)
  4. (Hsu 1999, 552)
  5. (Hsu 1999, 556)
  6. (Hsu 1999, 549)
  7. (Faulkenhausen 1999, 510)
  8. (Faulkenhausen 1999, 544)
  9. (Encyclopedia Britannica n.d.) “Spring and Autumn Period.” Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/event/Spring-and-Autumn-Period. Accessed June 5, 2017. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Z2EVWH4P.
  10. (Hsu 1999, 545) Hsu, C-y. 1999. “The Spring and Autumn Period,” in M. Loewe and E. L. Shaughnessy, eds. The Cambridge History of Ancient China From the Origins of Civilization to 221 BC. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 545-86. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/MMECH3VW.
  11. (Encyclopedia Britannica n.d.) “Spring and Autumn Period.” Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/event/Spring-and-Autumn-Period. Accessed June 5, 2017. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Z2EVWH4P.
  12. (Hsu 1999, 559) Hsu, C-y. 1999. “The Spring and Autumn Period,” in M. Loewe and E. L. Shaughnessy, eds. The Cambridge History of Ancient China From the Origins of Civilization to 221 BC. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 545-86. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/MMECH3VW.
  13. (Roberts 1999, 13) Roberts, John A.G. 1999. A History of China. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/H9D8H5E9.
  14. (Encyclopedia Britannica n.d.) “Spring and Autumn Period.” Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/event/Spring-and-Autumn-Period. Accessed June 5, 2017. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Z2EVWH4P.
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