CnErJin

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Jill Levine ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Western Jin ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ House of Sima; Jin dynasty; Tsin ♥ Ts'in

Jin dynasty, house of Sima [1] Ts'in. [2]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 280-300 CE ♥

"apogee of its power" 280 CE. [3]

Quote from 7th century History of the Jin Dynasty: "Supplies flowed into granaries and treasuries. Palaces had additional adornments; dresses and playthings sparkled brightly. [The richest people] vied with one another in display. Their carriages, dresses, and food utensils were comparable in elegance to those of the imperial family."[4]

"Although its days of peace and stability were short, the Western Jin, at least before 300, was a period of remarkable intellectual, scholarly, and literary activity."[5]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 265-317 CE ♥

Official dates 265-317 CE. [6]

NB: includes Sixteen Kingdoms period (304-439 CE)

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Later Wei Dynasty ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Northern Wei ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Chinese ♥ 'cultural zone' where Chinese dialects spoken; roughly qual to area of modern country of China. also known as Mainland China; area of 'Han' peoples
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ [3,000,000-4,000,000] ♥ km squared. Trading. Warfare.

♠ Capital ♣ Luoyang; Changan ♥ Luoyang. Then Chang'an after Luoyang sacked by the Xiongnu in 311 CE. [7]


♠ Language ♣ Chinese ♥

General Description

The Western Jin dynasty (House of Sima, Jin dynasty) briefly reunified China after the Three Kingdoms period, but was marked by political turmoil and internal rebellion. Sima Yan overthrew Cao Wei emperor Cao Huan in 265 CE and declared himself the Western Jin emperor.[8] In its 280 CE conquest of Eastern Wu, Western Jin dynasty ended the Three Kingdoms period and reunified China.[9] However, the central government was in almost constant turmoil because of internal conflict and corruption.[10] A series of rebellions of princes against imperial authority known as the Revolts of the Imperial Princes (291-306 CE) weakened the central government and led to the Disorder of the Five Tribes (304-316 CE), a large uprising of northern nomadic tribes.[11] In 316 CE, an imperial Jin prince fled south when a Xiongnu chief attacked the Western Jin capital of Luoyang. The prince went on to found the Eastern Jin dynasty in present day Nanjing.[12] [13]

The territory of the Western Jin empire was close to the size of the Han empire.[14] We have estimated that Western Jin polity territory covered 4.5 million square kilometers in 300 CE.

Despite the political turmoil of the period, advancements made in agriculture, craftsmanship, architecture, medicine, astronomy, and mathematics.[15] Buddhism continued to spread throughout China, and Daoism was revived and seen as a more well-defined religion.[16] There were many writers, poets and artists from the time of the Jin and the period is often seen as the first period for traditional Chinese art.[17]

Population and political organization

The Western Jin maintained many administrative structures of the Han. The empire was divided into provinces and semi-autonomous kingdoms.[18] However the Western Jin operated as a neo-feudal society.[19] Military rulers governed with the support of relatives, and Confucian values gradually disappeared from the central government and the education system.[20] The weak central government struggled to control the non-Chinese tribes living in the empire.[21]

The population of the Western Jin empire was recorded as 16.16 million in a 280 CE census.[22] The population of Luoyang was 600,000 people in 300 CE.[23]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 4,500,000: 300 CE ♥ in squared kilometers.

Kingdom of Wu conquered 280 CE.[24]

After 316 CE "the entire area north of the Yangi river was in the hands of various non-Han peoples."[25]

♠ Polity Population ♣ 16,163,863: 300 BCE ♥ People.

Jin census 280 CE: 2,459,840 households, 16,163,863 people.[26]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 600,000: 300 CE ♥ Inhabitants. Luoyang.

"At the height of Jin rule before the War of the Eight Princes, Luoyang had had a population of about 600,000 occupying a space of three square miles within the city walls; it was the largest city in eastern Asia and probably second only to Rome as the largest in the world."[27]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 6 ♥

1. Capital city
2. Provincial capital
3. Tributary capital
4. County capital
5. Town
6. Village.


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 9 ♥ levels.

1. Emperor
2. The Nine Courts

_Central government_

3. Secretariat (zhongshusheng)
3. Chancellery (menxiasheng)
3. Censorate (yushitai)
3. Three Dukes (sangong: Counsellor-in-chief chengxiang, Defender-in-chief taiwei, and Grand Preceptor taishi or taizai) later Eight Dukes (bagong: included the Grand Preceptor, Grand Mentor (taifu), the Grand Guardian (taibao), the Minister of Works (sikong), the Minister of Education (situ), and the Commander-in-chief (dasima) and the General-in-chief (dajiangjun)[28]
3. Imperial Secretariat (shangshusheng)
3-4. Royal Secretariat (shangshu tai) with six boards headed by presidents (shangshu)[29]
4-6. Six Ministries
4-6. Board of Works[30] (inferred vice minister and minister positions)
7. Qibu (Bureau of Works)
8. Lushi: "office manager in a general's headquarters, central government agency, or local administration"[31]
9. Clerk (inferred)

_Regional Government_

4. Regional Inspectors of Zhou
4. Regional Governors of Zhou
4. Regional Governors of Jun
4. Military Area Commanders (dudu or zongguan
4. Prince or Marquis
5. Magistrate (ling) of a Xian (county)[32]
6. Lower-level officials (inferred)
7. Clerks to the above offices (inferred)

The Nine Courts: "Regular court officials, arranged in courts (fu or si) helped to organize the imperial household affairs as chamberlains (qing)."[33] The Nine Chamberlains (jiuqing), which were "Nine central government leaders and the agencies and their control ... began to be called the Nine Courts (jiusi)."[34]

Secretariat (zhongshusheng): "the executive policy-formulating powers belonged to the Secretariat (zhongshusheng) that was the channel through which all memorials and documents flowed to the emperor and it was the agency that proposed and drafted all imperial rescipts, decrees (zhao) and edicts (ling)."[35]

Chancellery (menxiasheng): "Policy consultants were gathered in an institution called Chancellery (menxiasheng) whose main function was to advise and to remonstrate."[36]

Censorate (yushitai) headed by the Censor-in-chief: "The surveying agency of the officialdom was the Censorate (yushitai), headed by the Censor-in-chief (yushi dafu)."[37]

"The highest posts or titles of the Jin central government were inherited from the Han."[38] "Their staff was arranged in different sections (cao)."[39]

Imperial Secretariat (shangshusheng): "The major institution of the Han central government, the Imperial Secretariat (shangshusheng), was ousted to a more routinely administrative role that controlled the Six Ministries (liubu, each headed by a minister shangshu and a vice-minister puye)."[40]

Six Ministries (liubu, each headed by a minister shangshu and a vice-minister puye)[41]

Western Jin "Bureau of Works, under the Board of Works."[42]

Regional Government: "From the Three Kingdoms through the Western Jin, a three tier local government system, comprised of zhou (province), jun (region), and xian (county), was in place."[43]

Regional inspectors: a zhou was a province "governed by regional governors zhoumu and controlled by regional inspectors, cishi"[44]

"Each zhou had under its direct control a number of jun (regions). By the fall of the Western Jin, the zhou were reduced to de facto prefectures."[45]

"19 provinces (zhou), 173 regions and fiefdoms (jun guo), and 2,459,840 households."[46]

Jun (region) "administered by governors taishou."[47] Jun were "eclipsed by the appearance of zhou (province)"[48]

"Most regional governors were concurrently acting as military area commanders (dudu or zongguan)."[49]

"Alongside with commanderies and districts there existed a lot of princedoms (wangguo) and marquisates (houguo), fiefs bestowed to members of the imperial house and, particularly the marquisates, to ministers of high merits."[50]

"The administrative structure inherited Qin and Han reach down to the local level, the county (xian) with a population of several thousand or several tens of thousands..."[51]

♠ Religious levels ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels. Inferred from previous polity.

1. Emperor
2. Priests or ritual assistants

♠ Military levels ♣ [6-7] ♥ levels.

Central (Capital Army or Inner army of 100,000) and provincial armies

"The military was constituted from a Capital Army that was garrisoned in and around the capital, the armies of the princedoms and imperial clansmen, and private armies (buqu) of the magnates that were scattered throughout the empire and often represented a challenge for the central government in cases of rebellion." [52]
"The basic organizational structure of the Jin military was inherited from Wei. There were two major components: an "inner" army of some one hundred thousand based at the capital city of Luoyang, and a much larger "outer" army made up of garrisons stationed in the provinces. The inner army was under the direct control of the imperial court and included both a palace guard and a powerful mobile striking force, while the outer units were subordinate to regional military commanders (dudu) appointed by the court. In addition to these forces, there were also local troop raised by the various provincial governors (cishi)." However, local troops were abolished in an edict in 282 CE and with that change provincial governors lost authority over military forces, although there were some exceptions on the frontier.[53]

Princes were made dudu and they commanded private armies and outer armies

"Another Jin policy was to place substantial military power in the hands of princes of the imperial palace. The Jin founder, Sima Yan ... granted territorial fiefs to members of his own large and highly ramified lineage. Twenty-seven princes were enfeoffed soon after the founding of the dynasty in 265... most of the princes received commanderies as their fiefs ... In 277 the princes were allowed to raise their own armies, ranging in size from 1500 men for the smallest princely fief to 5000 for the largest. They were very far from being independent rulers, however. The central government in Luoyang appointed their chief ministers, and the princes had to turn two-thirds of their tax revenues over to the center. The real power of the princes ... lay in their appointments as regional military commanders. By 290 six of the princes were serving as dudu. They held more than half of the regional commands in the empire, and these included the most important provincial centers..."[54] = i.e. the princes who were dudu commanded both their own army and the garrison forces of the "outer" army.


1. Emperor

2. Generals inferred
Centralized command and control. "The Ts'in inherited the Wei system after AD 265, until Ssu-ma Yen deliberately abandoned the centralised system of command and placed members of his family in control of private armies."[55]
relatives only commanded small units of bodyguards [56]
3. Local commander[57] of outer army called dudu[58]
from 290 CE "dudu were once again allowed to hold provincial governorships concurrently with their military offices, giving them full control of both civil and military affairs in their assigned regions"[59]
4. Officers - commanders, captains etc. inferred
5. inferred
6. inferred
7. Individual soldier
3. Leader of division of inner army inferred
Conquered southern state of Wu. Final campaign 279 CE. "200,000 Jin troops marching against Wu in six columns" [60] = six columns suggest something about army structure
4. Officers - commanders, captains etc. inferred
5. inferred
6. inferred
7. Individual soldier

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Less senior officers may have been professionals who were full-time specialists.

army run by aristocrats and members of the ruling family

"The Ts'in inherited the Wei system after AD 265, until Ssu-ma Yen deliberately abandoned the centralised system of command and placed members of his family in control of private armies." [61]
from 290 CE "dudu were once again allowed to hold provincial governorships concurrently with their military offices, giving them full control of both civil and military affairs in their assigned regions"[62]
"The military was constituted from a Capital Army that was garrisoned in and around the capital, the armies of the princedoms and imperial clansmen, and private armies (buqu) of the magnates that were scattered throughout the empire and often represented a challenge for the central government in cases of rebellion." [63]
"... begun during the Tang dynasty... The rise of religious professionals and soldiers as clearly separate groups was contrary to the previous normative view of society divided into knights (shi, the term that would later be applied to the literati or gentry), farmers, artisans and merchants."[64]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ ♥

Trained, full-time, salaried soldiers would be "a challenge for the central government in cases of rebellion."

"The military was constituted from a Capital Army that was garrisoned in and around the capital, the armies of the princedoms and imperial clansmen, and private armies (buqu) of the magnates that were scattered throughout the empire and often represented a challenge for the central government in cases of rebellion." [65]

However: "... begun during the Tang dynasty... The rise of religious professionals and soldiers as clearly separate groups was contrary to the previous normative view of society divided into knights (shi, the term that would later be applied to the literati or gentry), farmers, artisans and merchants."[66]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred absent ♥ "... begun during the Tang dynasty... The rise of religious professionals and soldiers as clearly separate groups was contrary to the previous normative view of society divided into knights (shi, the term that would later be applied to the literati or gentry), farmers, artisans and merchants."[67]

Buddhism was present in northern China

"In addition to commerce, these Central Asian kingdoms were also centers of Buddhism, and it was from the cities on the Central Asian trade route that Buddhism spread into the Middle Kingdom. Thus it is no accident that it was during the Western Jin that Buddhism began to establish itself as a significant presence, at least in north China."[68]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥

"In 311 the Xiongnu army captured and destroyed Luoyang - they reportedly put to death some 30,000 Jin officials."[69]

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred present ♥ The bureaucracy may have had some examination procedure as first Chinese examination system was developed under the earlier Western Han dynasty. However, "Before the Northern Sung, the principal means of entry into the social and political elite was by official recommendation or kinship relations." [70]

Crude examination system existed in the Western Han[71] and had been developed further by 132 CE

"Before A.D. 132 the hsiao-lien did not have to undergo a written examination. It was decreed in that year that all must be examined..."[72]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred present ♥ "The problem of residence determination was first raised during the reign of Emperor Wu of the Western Jin in connection with the Nine Rank system of selecting officials. ... Another official, Li Zhong, took issue with their assessment and asserted that for all practical purposes the system of Nine Ranks had ceased to operate. He believed, however, that such a system was necessary and wanted to strengthen it through residence determination. ... Although it is not clear what became of Li's proposal, there is good reason to believe that it was adopted."[73]

"Emperor Wu clearly wished to do away with the Nine Ranks, but there was probably too much opposition from those who benefited from the system. Being unable to rid himself of it, the emperor may have sought to tighten the system in order to eliminate abuses."

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred retention of institutions from Eastern Han.

What happened after Eastern Han?

"During Western Han Confucianism gradually replaced legalism. Qin legal code remained basically intact, some severe measures rescinded." [74]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred retention of institutions from Eastern Han.

What happened after Eastern Han?

Under the Eastern Han the magistrate of the county enforced law and order and judged civil and criminal cases.[75] -- Is this magistrate a specialist in judging law?
Under the Eastern Han there was an official at the district level responsible for law, tax and labour. At the commune level the chief maintained law and order. [76]

♠ Courts ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred retention of institutions from Eastern Han.

Under Eastern Han there was a Superintendent of trials[77] - trials presumably would be held in a court.

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred retention of institutions from Eastern Han.

Under Eastern Han there was a Superintendent of trials[78] - this government department presumably had specialists on law.

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ "...well-known extensive irrigation works and man-made transport canals linking up the major rivers" [79]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥ Unknown. "Besides the more well-known extensive irrigation works and man-made transport canals linking up the major rivers, the provision of water supplies to its cities formed the third important element of China's ancient water civilization."[80] Emperor Wu of the Western Han ordered the Kunming Reservoir to provide water for Chang'an which was delivered to the city via "water-transfer channels." One channel provided water to canals other "specifically for supplying water within the city."[81] This system was damaged by civil wars at the end of the Han dynasty and the water became unsuitable for drinking.[82]
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ Under Eastern Han commandery governors (provincial government) had a bureau that dealt with markets.[83] We could infer the Early Jin bureaucracy which was similar to the Eastern Han's also regulated markets.
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ Granaries.[84]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Canals ♣ inferred present ♥ "...well-known extensive irrigation works and man-made transport canals linking up the major rivers" [85]
♠ Ports ♣ inferred present ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ present ♥ The earliest known written documentation of the Chinese abacus dates to the 2nd century BC [86]
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ "The administrative structure inherited Qin and Han reach down to the local level, the county (xian) ... it relied heavily on written records and documents, and sought to maintain a high degree of control over the population."[87]
♠ Script ♣ inferred present ♥ written documents [88]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ present ♥ Chinese language
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Chinese language

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ "The administrative structure inherited Qin and Han reach down to the local level, the county (xian) ... it relied heavily on written records and documents"[89]
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred present ♥ "The administrative structure inherited Qin and Han reach down to the local level, the county (xian) ... it relied heavily on written records and documents"[90]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Buddhist sacred texts. "In addition to commerce, these Central Asian kingdoms were also centers of Buddhism, and it was from the cities on the Central Asian trade route that Buddhism spread into the Middle Kingdom. Thus it is no accident that it was during the Western Jin that Buddhism began to establish itself as a significant presence, at least in north China."[91]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ "In addition to commerce, these Central Asian kingdoms were also centers of Buddhism, and it was from the cities on the Central Asian trade route that Buddhism spread into the Middle Kingdom. Thus it is no accident that it was during the Western Jin that Buddhism began to establish itself as a significant presence, at least in north China."[92] Study of Confucian classics: Du Yu (222-284 CE) "Zuo Tradition".[93]
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred present ♥ "the Western Jin, at least before 300, was a period of remarkable intellectual, scholarly, and literary activity."[94] Guo Pu (276-324 CE) commentaries to works.[95] Zhang Hua (232-300 CE) statesman and author "Treatise on Manifold Subjects".[96]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ "the Western Jin, at least before 300, was a period of remarkable intellectual, scholarly, and literary activity."[97] Shu Xi (263-302 CE) "Bamboo Annals, Account of the Travels of Emperor Mu of Zhou."[98] Huangfu Mi (215-282 CE) "Lives of High-Minded Gentlemen"[99] and "Records of Emperors and Kings".
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥ "the Western Jin, at least before 300, was a period of remarkable intellectual, scholarly, and literary activity."[100] Huangfu Mi (215-282 CE) was a physician.
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred present ♥ "the Western Jin, at least before 300, was a period of remarkable intellectual, scholarly, and literary activity."[101] Huangfu Mi (215-282 CE) was a physician.
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Shu Xi (263-302 CE) "several collections of fabulous tales."[102] Zhu Yi (d.312 CE) "is usually regarded as the inventor of the general anthology."[103] "The major genres of Western Jin literature are the poem, the fu, and various types of prose: the letter, expository essay, memorial, dirge, grave inscription, and lament, just to mention the more common ones."[104]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥ Unknown.
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Copper cash mentioned in stories from the period.[105]
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred absent ♥ "during the Western Jin and early Sixteen Kingdom periods paper spread westward and replaced woodslips".[106] - No mention of paper currency in this brief discussion of early Chinese paper making in this source.

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ Dunhuang City, Gansu: "Excavations between 1990 and 1992 exposed the site of a 'postal relay station' (zhi), which was used from the middle of the Western Han (ca. 111 BCE) until the Cao Wei (220-65 CE) and Western Jin (265-316 CE) periods. The site included a hostel, kitchen facilities, rooms for courier personnel, and stables."[107]
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ Dunhuang City, Gansu: "Excavations between 1990 and 1992 exposed the site of a 'postal relay station' (zhi), which was used from the middle of the Western Han (ca. 111 BCE) until the Cao Wei (220-65 CE) and Western Jin (265-316 CE) periods. The site included a hostel, kitchen facilities, rooms for courier personnel, and stables."[108]
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥ Unknown. Dunhuang City, Gansu: "Excavations between 1990 and 1992 exposed the site of a 'postal relay station' (zhi), which was used from the middle of the Western Han (ca. 111 BCE) until the Cao Wei (220-65 CE) and Western Jin (265-316 CE) periods. The site included a hostel, kitchen facilities, rooms for courier personnel, and stables."[109]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ in bronze
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ widely used in the Han dynasty
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Iron weapons and armour came into widespread use during the Warring States period (453-221 BCE). [110]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ "During the Spring and Autumn period, China developed steel and iron-made weaponry, and as the raw iron castings technique was widely practiced - and the ‘folded hundred times steel’ casting method was on the rise, along with various polishing techniques for steel - Chinese steel weapons were very much on the ascendant."[111] First steel adapted by Chu in 5th century BCE[112], likely spread quickly to other states "As the smiths in time learned the possibilities of their material, and began producing quench-hardened steel swords ... bronze swords could not longer compete and went out of use completely. This seems likely to have occurred all over China by the late third century B.C. at the latest."[113] "As early as the later Han dynasty and the early Jin dynasty, the Chinese were already capable of producing steel."[114] Wootz steel was "being exported from India to China at least as early as the +5th century. … good steel was manufactured in China by remarkably modern methods at least from that time onwards also."[115] First high-quality steel 450 CE.

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ "Tomb guardian" warrior sculpture unearthed 1984 has arm held back in the action of throwing a spear (the spear is missing). However, the text speculates that the missing weapon is "believed to be a long knife".[116] "Native infantry were armed much as they had been in Han times, although a series of tomb figurines which appear to be throwing spears suggests that this practice - uncommmon among Chinese troops - was adopted by some in this period. They may have been foreign auxiliaries such as the Chi'ang, who are described as fighting with bows, spears and swords, and as scattering easily, which implies skirmishing tactics." [117]
♠ Atlatl ♣ inferred absent ♥ New World weapon, unlikely.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred absent ♥ Better, simple-to-use range weapons available, such as the crossbow.
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ "Weapons were mainly lances and bows..." [118]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ by mid-4th century BCE crossbows used in large numbers on battlefield [119]
cavalry from 4th century BCE [120] "Weapons were mainly lances and bows..." [121]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ by mid-4th century BCE crossbows used in large numbers on battlefield [122]
cavalry from 4th century BCE [123]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ "Siege equipment mentioned by Ssu-ma Kuang includes artillery, moveable towers, and artificial mounds erected to enable besiegers to shoot over city walls, and scaling ladders."[124]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ {absent; present} ♥ arcuballiste and lever-operated stone-throwing catapults (trebuchets) approaches ..." from Warring States period, and "There was to be very little change in the Chinese art of siege warfare ... until the introduction of gunpowder" [125] "Siege equipment mentioned by Ssu-ma Kuang includes artillery, moveable towers, and artificial mounds erected to enable besiegers to shoot over city walls, and scaling ladders."[126] "Of the date of the introduction of the counterweight trebuchet to China there can be no doubt. It occurred in 1272, during one of the greatest sieges of Chinese history, at Xiangyang, where the Mongols besieged the Southern Song for five years." [127]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Gunpowder introduced in 900 CE [128]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Gunpowder introduced in 900 CE [129]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Existed earlier in chronology for this region so not a question of whether technology is present. Battle axes, a similar crushing weapon, are known, so it is likely metal war clubs could have been used, if they were deemed to have been useful.
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ Battle axes were used in the earlier Han dynasty [130]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ The dao: "Sometimes translated as "knife," this weapon was really a sturdy, single-edged saber with only very slight curvature."[131]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ The jian was a straight, double-edged, slashing/thrusting sword.[132]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Over the same time period "the ji, a long-handled weapon with several blades that was used as much for hooking as for thrusting, yielded to spears and lances of simpler construction."[133] Over the same time period "the ji, a long-handled weapon with several blades that was used as much for hooking as for thrusting, yielded to spears and lances of simpler construction."[134] "Weapons were mainly lances and bows..." [135]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ Halberds were widely used in the Han dynasty [136]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ Never used in warfare. [137]
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ Used as pack animals. [138]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Horsemen. [139] "By the years around AD 300 ... the appearance of heavy armor for both man and house, the introduction of the stirrup, and the adoption of new patterns of edged weapons greatly added to the advantages that cavalry enjoyed over infantry."[140]
♠ Camels ♣ ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ Were in use in the Han dynasty
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ Were in use in the Han dynasty
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ [141] "Tomb guardian" warrior sculpture unearthed in 1984 is holding a shield.[142]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ "By the years around AD 300 ... the appearance of heavy armor for both man and horse"[143] "A pictoral representation dated to 357 shows us a fully armored warrior. "The body of the rider is almost completely covered by armor. He wears a plumed helmet that protects the sides and back of the head..."[144] Sculpture of "Tomb guardian" warrior shows helmet.[145]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ Were in use in the Han dynasty
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ "By the years around AD 300 ... the appearance of heavy armor for both man and horse"[146] "A pictoral representation dated to 357 shows us a fully armored warrior. "The body of the rider is almost completely covered by armor. He wears ... chaps."[147]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ "By the years around AD 300 ... the appearance of heavy armor for both man and horse"[148] "A pictoral representation dated to 357 shows us a fully armored warrior. "The body of the rider is almost completely covered by armor. He wears ... a habergeon with high neck and shoulder guards..."[149]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ "By the years around AD 300 ... the appearance of heavy armor for both man and horse"[150] "A pictoral representation dated to 357 shows us a fully armored warrior. "The body of the rider is almost completely covered by armor. He wears ... a habergeon with high neck and shoulder guards..."[151] Sculpture of "Tomb guardian" warrior unearthed in 1984 shows scale armor.[152]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥ "By the years around AD 300 ... the appearance of heavy armor for both man and horse"[153] "A pictoral representation dated to 357 shows us a fully armored warrior. "The body of the rider is almost completely covered by armor. ... The armor was made of lamellar plate, but one cannot say whether of iron or of lacquered leather."[154]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Coat of plates cuirasses existed back in warring states times

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ Naval operations "very common" on rivers. [155]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred present ♥ Jin made naval military assaults against Wu.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ The Great Wall as a defensive settlement [156]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Up until the Tang and Song Dynasties wide ramparts and ditches were a typical part of the defense system for a fortified town or city.[157] "field defences such as wagon laagers, earth ramparts or felled trees became very widespread, and many battles to the form of assaults on fortified lines or camps." [158]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ Up until the Tang and Song Dynasties wide ramparts and ditches were a typical part of the defense system for a fortified town or city.[159]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ present for previous polities
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Walls were still constructed of rammed earth and were often damaged by heavy rain." [160]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Walls were still constructed of rammed earth and were often damaged by heavy rain." [161]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ "field defences such as wagon laagers, earth ramparts or felled trees became very widespread, and many battles to the form of assaults on fortified lines or camps." [162]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Jill Levine ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ inferred absent ♥ Constraint was informal. "No list of specific written prohibition could tie the hands of the Emperor, though in practice how arbitrary an Emperor could be depended on many intangibles.” [163]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ inferred absent ♥ Constraint was informal. On rulers, from noble lineages and ritual specialists, based on cosmological theories. [164] "No list of specific written prohibition could tie the hands of the Emperor, though in practice how arbitrary an Emperor could be depended on many intangibles.” [165]
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ "During the Wei and Jin periods members of the local gentry did only occasionally have access to high state offices. Those were reserved for members of the imperial house. [166]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Jill Levine; Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ Mandate of Heaven. [167]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ Rulers are divine figures, descendant from deified ancestor spirits, who became representative of / equated with di. [168] Puett points out, though, that the divine nature of the Emperor was something established through his ritual actions, not something he was 'born into'. " There is no claim that, for example, a given ruler was in fact born of Heaven rather than of human parents, or that the lineage of a given ruling dynasty has a closer biological link to Heaven than other lineages. On the contrary, the relations are always defined ex post facto—a ruler takes power and only then, through sacrifice, does he define his ancestral lineage as royal and does he define Heaven as his father."[169]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ [170]According to traditional Chinese ideology, dating back to the Han Dynasty, men who were well-versed in the Classics (i.e. scholars and state officials) were superior to other social groups - specifically, farmers, artesans, and merchants. However, it is worth noting that it was possible for farmers, artesans and merchants to become literate, and join the ranks of their social superiors. As for Confucianism, strictly speaking it only really promoted hierarchy within the family - there is no indication, in Confucian literature, that social elites are inherently superior to commoners. And all three main Chinese religions - Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism - required all social classes to follow the same moral code [171] For a slightly different viewpoint: "Confucianism emphasizes not only the domination of the head of state over his officials and subjects but also the domination of male over female, old over young, and officials over their subjects.[172]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ [173] Rulers are divine figures, descendant from deified ancestor spirits, who became representative of / equated with di. [174] Puett points out, though, that the divine nature of the Emperor was something established through his ritual actions, not something he was 'born into'. " There is no claim that, for example, a given ruler was in fact born of Heaven rather than of human parents, or that the lineage of a given ruling dynasty has a closer biological link to Heaven than other lineages. On the contrary, the relations are always defined ex post facto—a ruler takes power and only then, through sacrifice, does he define his ancestral lineage as royal and does he define Heaven as his father."[175]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ According to traditional Chinese ideology, dating back to the Han Dynasty, men who were well-versed in the Classics (i.e. scholars and state officials) were superior to other social groups - specifically, farmers, artesans, and merchants. However, it is worth noting that it was possible for farmers, artesans and merchants to become literate, and join the ranks of their social superiors. As for Confucianism, strictly speaking it only really promoted hierarchy within the family - there is no indication, in Confucian literature, that social elites are inherently superior to commoners. And all three main Chinese religions - Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism - required all social classes to follow the same moral code [176] For a slightly different viewpoint: "Confucianism emphasizes not only the domination of the head of state over his officials and subjects but also the domination of male over female, old over young, and officials over their subjects.[177]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ Buddhism reinforced the idea of prosociality, while Daoism and Confucianism focused on self-cultivation. Private donors: “The notion was that a gift could redeem sins committed in this life and therefore reduce or eliminate punishment in the afterlife.” Donors from all classes gave different types of property- land, mills, silk, slaves, coppers, and more. [178] “[Pierre-Sylvain] Regis claimed that Confucius’s basic message was charity, which was deemed universal and reasonable.” [179]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ In traditional Chinese ideology, it was seen as virtuous to build roads, bridges, etc. [180] Buddhism: “Leading a moral life is seen as having a wider social dimension as well. Establishing public parks, constructing bridges, digging wells and providing a residence for the homeless (see SN 1:1:47; similarly Jat 31) - all these are commended.” [181] Daoism (and, to a lesser extent, Confucianism): “The ‘’Taishang ganying pian’’ is a short anonymous tract (about 1,275 characters), probably composed in the second half of the Northern Song dynasty and traditionally regarded as the first and most paradigmatic morality book (*’’shansu’’). While closely associated with Taosim[...]the ‘’Ganying pian’’ also draws on sources beyond Taoism to present a message geared to a broad audience. [...] The earliest known edition of the ‘’Ganying pian’’ was transmitted with commentary by one Li Changling abou 1165. [...] To accumulate merit, fulfill vows, or perform a recognizably moral service, various eminent figures republished the ‘’Ganying pian’’ with commentaries. While Li Changling stressed the spirit of the Three Teachings (Confucianism, Taism, and Buddhism), scholar-officials like Zhen Dexiu (1178-1235), Hui Dong (1697-1758; ECCP 357-58) and Yu Yue (1821-1906; ECCP 944-45), among others, emphasized its Confucian morality for the masses. [...] As distribution of the ‘’Ganying pian’’, like all morality books, was thought to be a virtue that earned one merit, large and small donations toward its printing were conventional ways of doing good. It is still distributed free in many temples.” [182]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [183] [184] [185]

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