AfKushn

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Stephen Dean; Alice Williams; Edward A L Turner; Dan Mullins ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Kushan Empire ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ kuei-shuang; Kusana; Kushana; Kingdom of the Kushans ♥ [1] "the Kingdom of the Kushans"[2]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 229 CE ♥ Before the Sassanid invasion in 230 CE. "The deterioration of Gandhara's economy after 230 CE is indicated by the fact that the last eight rulers of the Kushan Dynasty issued copper coins only."[3]

Many authors repeat that the peak was under Kanishka (they might be repeating each other without thinking) and this was true in territorial extent. However, considering the core region remained at peace a while thereafter, the economy strengthened and building construction increased a later date may actually be more appropriate.

Vima Kadphises (101-127 CE) "marks the period of increasing affluence (of which the gold coins were one manifestation)" [4]

Kanishka I (128-150 CE) was "immensely successful" in his military campaigns.[5]

Huvishka (155-190 CE): "The foundations of a prosperous Gandhara laid by Kanishka, especially through active participation in the Silk Route trade, continued to be strengthened during Huvishka's reign. This continuous prosperity is reflected in the large number of Buddhist monuments constructed in Huvishka's reign and the large number of gold and copper coins belonging to his period found from all regions of Gandhara."[6]

Vasudeva (190-220 CE): "the Buddhist establishment continued to prosper, and so did the economy. There was an accelleration of the activities of the Buddhist missionaries and a large number of Buddhist monks moved to Bactria and western China."[7]

Kanishka II (221-230 CE): "The Sassanians under Shahpur-I invaded Western Gandhara during the rule of Kanishka II and caused large-scale destruction to Buddhist monuments, and left the Kushans highly demoralized."[8]

Shortly before the Sasanid invasion of 230 CE "The Wei Lio (History of the Wei Dynasty) informs us that the Kingdom of Kabul (Kao-fu) and the Kingdom of India (T'ien-chou) were both dependencies of the Ta-Yueh-chih."[9] These are either two parts of the Kushan state or two Kushan states.[10]

2nd and 3rd CE in Bactria: art and architecture reach high stage of development.[11]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 35-319 CE ♥

Sapadbizes (50-10 BCE) was the first Kushan clan chief. He was a ruler of western Bactria "sometimes linked to the Yuezhi. He is known only from his his coins" which are of "good silver" and "overstruck" those of Phraates IV of Parthia. Chinese chronicles suggest Sapadbizes was a Parthian vassal. It is assumed that his kingdom was conquered by Kujula Kadphises during the war with Parthia and became part of a Kushan Empire c30 CE.[12]

Heralos or Heraus (10 BCE - 20 CE) claimed to be a Kushan ruler. He called himself a 'tyrant' on his coinage and had a deformed skull. "Although different views of chronology persist, there is no doubt that Heraus was an early ruler of the Kushan tribe of the Yuezhi confederacy in northern Bactria, more than a century after the nomads overthrew the Greco-Bactrian kingdom, shortly before the Kushan kings invaded India."[13]

Kujula Kadphises (20-65 CE) "was a Kushan prince who united the Yuezhi confederation during the 1st century CE, and became the first Kushan emperor. He was son of the Kushan ruler Keralos. He was the first ruler of the Kushan empire in Afghanistan. Later on he extended his rule to Gandhara and the Punjab (Pakistan) The rise of Kujula Kadphises is described in the Chinese historical chronicle, the Hou Hanshu".[14]

From 35 CE an internal struggle took place between the five Yuezhi 'tribes' on the borders of the Chinese empire . Kadaphasa, head of the Kushan lineage 'tribe', emerges victorious. The Kushans solidified their control over Bactria, expand west into modern Afghanistan, and east into northwest Pakistan beginning in 45 CE. [15]

Vima Kadphises (75-105 CE) expanded the Kushan empire in India and acquired the port of Barygaza "where ships could sail to Egypt, bypassing Parthia" They traded with the Romans using this route c100 CE.[16] He introduced gold coinage to the existing silver and cooper coins.[17]

Vima Kadphises "changed the standard of the coins which had so far been of the same weight as the Indo-Greek ones been following Roman precedent."[18]

Kanishka I (105-140 CE) expanded the empire in Turkmenistan, Tajikstan, Kyrgstan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India. He moved the capital "from Bactra to Purushapura (Christian: 213)."[19]

End Date: {242-319 CE}. The first Sasanian sovereign Ardashir I raided the Kushana empire after conquering Armenia, which resulted in Kushan submission and the end of the independent Kushan empire. The Kushan king at the time succesfully intervened to support a pretender to the throne in 303 CE. The Sasanian King Shapur II regained the lost territories and once more subjugated the Kushans. The last Kushan king was Vasudeva II probably ruled as a vassal of the Sasanids for some time. The establishment of the Imperial Gupta dynasty by Candragupta in 319 CE is the absolute latest end date for the Kushans as a political entity.[20]

The end of the Kushans was a period of competing outsiders conquered them and placing them as vassals, with the Sassanians, Guptas and Hepthalites competing over the over-lordship.

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ confederated state ♥ Government infrastructure consisted of bureaucratic, military and feudatory elements headed by an absolute or near absolute military monarchy. The empire was expanded and its territorial integrity maintained by its army. One theory advocates that the political structure of the empire was characterized by a 'hierarchical organization in a feudatory system'. Another view suggests the Kushan concept of kingship represented 'a step in the growth of a centralized, imperial state'. Another hypothesis suggests the Kushan structure was a mixture of both bureaucratic and feudal elements. Outer Satraps exerceted a large degree of independence the further south into the Indian subcontinent and further from the capitals one went. [21]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none; vassalage ♥ none: 30-375 CE; vassalage: 230-375 CE [22]

Alliance with Roman Empire?

Vima Kadphises (101-127 CE) was "keen to establish diplomatic relations with the Romans and with this intention sent his ambassador to the court of the Roman emperor sometime around 120 CE."[23] Huvishka (155-190 CE) "sent his ambassador to the court of the Roman emperor Antonio Pius, who succeeded Hadrian to the throne in 138 CE."[24]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Tocharians ♥ Hou Han Shu said: "When the Yeuh-chih were destroyed by the Hsiung-nu, they migrated to Ta-Hsia [Bactria] and divided the country into five Hsi-hou [Chiefdoms] ... Then 100 years later Chiu-chiu-chu'ueh [Kujula Kadphises] hsi-hou [Chief] of Kuei-shuang having attacked and destroyed [the other] four hsi-hou became independent and set himself on the throne."[25] "The Yueh-chih first arrived in Bactria around 125 BCE."[26] The Yueh-chih were the Tocharians, who were the ancestors to the Kushans. Also preceded by the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. [27]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ "The Yueh-chih, as the ancestors of the Kushans were known, were settled in the Tarim Basin in the 3rd century BCE."[28] "After being driven out of the Tarim Basin the Yueh-chih settled on either side of the Amu Darya, in a region called collectively in ancient times Bactria."[29]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Sassanid Empire I ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Greco-Persian ♥ "Kujala's early upbringing had been in an environment, in which the basic Hellenistic culture was tempered through Mesopotamian and Persian influences."[30] Use of the title "King-of-Kings" on coins by Huvishka (155-190 CE) "is yet another indication of the tendency among Kushan rulers to emulate the emperors of the Persian Dynasties."[31]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 4,000,000 ♥ km squared. Greco-Persian area corresponding to Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan and Transoxania.

♠ Capital ♣ Takshasila-Sirkap; Takshasila-Sirsukh; Purushapura ♥

Kujula Kadphrises (60-80 CE) ruled from Taxila. Capital called Takshasila-Sirkap.[32]

Vima Kadphises (101-127 CE) began a new capital at Takshasila-Sirsukh.[33]

Kanishka I (128-150 CE) moved the capital to Purushapura.[34] He had regional capitals at Taxila, Begram and Mathura.[35]

Administrative: Peshawar; Mathura {Bagram; Taxila} [36]

♠ Language ♣ Greek; Bactrian; Kharoshthi ♥ Greek language on coins until reign of Kanishka I (128-150 CE). Thereafter only Bactrian script on coins. Kharoshthi discontinued on coins from the same time but "was almost exclusively employed on various types of inscriptions in Gandhara and it was also exclusively and extensively employed for compiling Buddhist texts in Gandhara all through the Kushan period. .. Kharoshthi was also employed on a fairly large scale for writing non-religious texts, such as legal documents, land transfer deeds, official letters, etc. in various parts of Xingjiang Province of China, particularly in the Kashgar-Khotan-Niya Region."[37] Kanishka I (155-190 CE) era inscriptions (Rabatak and Surkh Kotal) found in Bactrian script employing monumental Greek script rather than the cursive style.[38] the state chancery used both "Bactrian written in Greek script and Gandhari written in Kharoshthi".[39] There also was a "formulae transmitted from the Achaemenians."[40] Sanskrit and Prakrit (of various types) were literary languages.[41] Official: Bactrian; {Regional: Gandhari; Sogdian; Greek; Chorasmian; Tocharian; Saka dialects}; Liturgical: Sanskrit.

General Description

The Kushan Empire was a confederated state headed by an absolute or near absolute military monarchy. Little is known of its early history due to the scarcity of written records, but it appears to have been founded in Bactria, Central Asia in the mid-1st century CE when Kujula Kadphises united the five tribes of the Yuezhi confederation.[42]

The Kushan state, as chronicled by the Hou Hanshu (a Chinese text), expanded from Bactria and Sogdiana into Gandhara (in modern-day Pakistan) and northern India.[43] Kushan coins recovered from excavations across this region are a key source of evidence for the expansion of the empire and reveal that Kushan monarchs took a syncretistic approach to religion and culture, utilizing Buddhist, Iranian, Hellenistic and Indian iconography.[44]

Population and political organization

Historians are uncertain exactly how the Kushan Empire was governed. According to Rafi-us Samad, the Kushans were 'great conquerors but poor administrators' and the stable administration of the capital was to a large degree reliant on the Buddhist establishment.[45] Nevertheless, the historian B. N. Puri has described the Kushan king's powers as 'unfettered' by any kind of advisory body comparable to those found in the Mauryan period in northern India.[46] The state chancery used both the Bactrian language, written using the Greek alphabet, and Gandhari, written in the Kharosthi script.[47]

One theory holds that the political structure of the empire was characterized by 'hierarchical organization in a feudatory system'. Another view suggests the Kushan state included a mixture of both bureaucratic and feudal elements. The further south into the Indian subcontinent and the further from the capitals one went, the more independent the outer satraps became.[48]

The literature does not provide reliable estimates for the population of the Kushan Empire.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Stephen Dean; Alice Williams; Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [2,000,000-2,500,000]: 100 CE; [2,000,000-2,500,000]: 200 CE ♥ squared kilometers.

[2,000,000-2,500,000]: 100 CE

60 CE Greater Bactria, Anxi (Indo-Parthia), Kaofu (Kabul Region), Puda (Paktiya), Jipin (Kapisa and Gandhara), and the Taxila region. However, at this time core area was the Taxila region.[49]
Vima Taktu (81-100 CE) and Vima Kadphises (101-127 CE) "the entire region of Greater Gandhara including Uddhyana (Swat, Dir & Bajaur) and Upper and Lower Kabul River valleys became a solid part of the Kushan Empire."[50] "North of the Hindu Kush, till the Guissar Mountains, Kushans exercised some influence; but these regions were not strictly under the political control of the Kushan emperors."[51] "Probably Mathura was also established as a vassal State of the Kushan Empire during this period."[52]

[3,500,000-4,000,000]: 150 CE

Kanishka I (128-150 CE) "the Kushan Empire included besides the territories of Greater Gandhara, Greater Bactria, part of Parthia and the Tarim Basin in Chinese Xingjiang."[53]

[2,000,000-2,500,000]: 200 CE

Huvishka (155-190 CE) "it seems that the territories north of the Amu Darya and the Tarim Basin became independent but Bactria (south of the Amu Darya) could have remained under Kushan control."[54]

[1,000,000-1,500,000]: 250 CE

230 CE "during the rule of the minor rulers, the entire Central Asian region became independent."[55]

Note on the Rabatak Inscription "peak territory"

"The Rabatak Inscription ... mentions a number of cities which Kanishka says formed a part of his vast empire. The names of these cities are given as Ozene, Zageda, Kasambo, Palabotro and Ziri tambo in the Rabatak inscription, which the translator of the Rabatak inscription, Professor Nicholas Sims-Williams, has identified with the cities of Ujjain, Saketa, Kausambi, Pataliputra and Champa." "This identification, if it is correct, obviously gives a rather exaggerated account of the extent of the Kushan Empire during Kanishka's reign. This statement in the Rabatak Inscription is not supported by reliable archaeological or historical information from other sources. At best one could agree that Kanishka invaded these territories and forced the rulers to pay tribute, but such an arrangement could not have lasted for very long. These territories could therefore not be considered an integral part of the Kushan Empire."[56]

Sogdiana

"The territory of Sogdiana (the Zerafshan valley) did not belong to the Kushan Empire".[57]


♠ Polity Population ♣ [12,500,000-13,500,000]: 100 CE; [14,000,000-15,000,000]: 200 CE ♥

No reliable estimates exist, although the population seems to have increased and a the number of cities in the northern steppe grew and prospered. Studies and excavations of cities also show a marked growth in the density and overall population size of the populations involved. [58]


McEvedy and Jones [59]

100 CE

Pakistan and North West India. 36m for Pakistan, India and Bangladesh. In 200 BC approximately 40% in the Ganges Basin. If roughly same proportions in 100 CE, and Kushans mostly outside the Ganges Basin, leaves 22 million for rest of India. Indus Basin likely to have been next most populous part of Indian sub-continent at this time. If, say, 25% total that would be 9m.
Afghanistan 2m
Transoxania 1.75m for Russian Turkestan

200 CE

Pakistan and North West India. 39m for Pakistan, India and Bangladesh. In 200 BC approximately 40% in the Ganges Basin. If roughly same proportions in 100 CE, and Kushans mostly outside the Ganges Basin, leaves 23 million for rest of India. Indus Basin likely to have been next most populous part of Indian sub-continent at this time. If, say, 25% total that would be 10m.
Afghanistan 2.25m
Transoxania 1.75m for Russian Turkestan


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 150,000: 100 CE; 100,000: 200 CE ♥ Inhabitants.

Taxila: 150,000: 100 CE; 100,000: 200 CE[60]

Merv: 100,000: 100 CE[61]

Purushapura: 100,000: 100 CE; 100,000: 200 CE[62]

Kanishka I (128-150 CE) moved the capital to Purushapura, and Purushapura developed into the greatest city in the Kushan Empire."[63]

40,000 in Vargsar "which was always of major strategic importance as the main water-supply centre for the left-bank sector of the Samarkand Oasis and as a point commanding the approaches to Samarkand. Whoever held Vargsar could deprive Samarkand of its water supply. In the political history of Samarkand, there are numerous examples of attempts by foreign invaders to destroy the Vargsar dam and so compel Samarkand to surrender."[64]

Settlement of Bhita, or Vichi, covered about 26ha and had a population of between 10,000-20,000.[65]

The largest Central Asian cities were Bukhara, Samarkand and Ershi.[66]

City of Sirkap was "transferred to a new site at Sirsukh ... This new Kushan city, founded under the nameless king Soter Megas, covered an area of 1,370 x 1,000 m, but has not yet been excavated."[67]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [4-5] ♥

1. City - capital

Kanishka I (128-150 CE) moved the capital to Purushapura.[68] He had regional capitals at Taxila, Begram and Mathura.[69]
2. City - administrative center
"Major administrative centers are believed to have been Peshawar in northwest Pakistan and Mathura in the Ganges Basin."[70]
3. Towns
2nd and 3rd CE in Bactria: "During this period the country consisted of towns, including the important cities of Balkh and Termez, and rural settlements (roughly in the ratio of one to seven)."[71]
Vichi (Bhita) estimated population of population of between 10,000 and 20,000 persons. "In Sisupalgarh (ancient Kalinga˙nagara), where the ruins of the ancient city cover an areaof about 1.36 km2". "Begram, north of Kabul, at the confluence of the Panjshir and Ghorband rivers. The city was rectangular in shape, extending 800mfrom north to south and 450m from east to west with a citadel in the northeast." [72] "The cities became centres for the production of commodities for sale, hence their key importance in the city-village-nomadic-steppe system." [73]
4. Rural settlements
5. Nomadic camps.

Commune

"There is some direct, and a great deal of indirect, evidence to show that the commune occupied an important place in the socio-economic life of Central Asia and in the ancient East as a whole. This seems to have continued until the Early Middle Ages, for which evidence is available. Thus, the commune in Sogdiana was known as naf; it consisted of the aristocracy (azat, azatkar), merchants (xvakar), and free peasants (who were members of the commune) and craftsmen (karikar). ... According to the written sources, the azat owned the land and the villages and were the chief retainers of the local and provincial rulers." [74]
" In all probability, there was more land under communal ownership than any other type. There is some evidence to show that communes owned whole irrigation systems and the regions irrigated by them, as well as settlements and grazing lands. Localities settled by rural communes were called varzana, vardana or gava, meaning village or rural district, and it was precisely at this time that the fortified settlement of Vardanze, in the northern part of the Bukhara oasis, was established."[75]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [4-5] ♥ levels

Widespread literacy in India among Buddhist monks and Brahmans who were recruited as administrators using their Kharosthi script.[76]

For example, "putting in place an effective satrapy system was not within the capabilities of the Kushans. ... At Kashgar, Kanishka installed a king of his choice ... but after Kanishka's death, this kingdom also slipped out of Kushan control."[77]


1. Kushana king.

Despite lower levels of administration, the Kushan king possessed unfettered powers. [78]


_Central government_

Within Greater Gandhara (northwest Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan) administration through the Buddhist establishment. Outside Greater Gandhara (Bactria, Sogdiana, Tarim Basin, Jumna Basin etc.) there was no such establishment to run the administration of the territories.[79]

2. Mantriparishad (Council of ministers) or Mantriparishatpala (prime minister) where is this from? is it inferred from later or earlier Indian systems? what is the evidence for this in the Kushan era?
"The king seems to have possessed unfettered powers, as we find no reference in the Kushan records to any advisory body or to councillors corresponding to amatyas and sachivas of the Mauryan period."[80]
3.
4.
5


_Regions_

2. Satraps
Inscriptions mention satraps and other officials have been found. "Satraps are known for Kapisa (Begram), Manikyala (near Rawalpindi), Und (west of the Indus), Mathura, Varanasi, etc. There may have been satraps for other parts of the empire, but the evidence on this point is wanting."[81]
3. dandanayakas
"ksatrapas were definitely at a higher administrative level than the dandanayakas" but the relationship between them is not known.[82]
4. gramika or padrapala (village head) / Commune
"The inscriptions mention two terms - 'gramika' and 'padrapala' - both signifying 'village headman', who collected the king's dues and took cognizance of crimes in his area. There is no information about the local government that we find later in the Gupta period."[83]
"the commune occupied an important place in the socio-economic life of Cenral Asia and in the ancient East as a whole. This seems to have continued until the Early Middle Ages, for which evidence is available. Thus, the commune in Sogdiana was known as naf; it consisted of the aristocracy (azat, azatkar), merchants (xvakar), and free peasants (who were members of the commune) and craftsmen (karikar). Of these three categories in the naf the highest status was enjoyed by the azat, that is, persons of 'high and noble birth', the azatkar or free persons associated with the azat and the 'children of the azat of aristocratic, noble origin.' According to the written sources, the azat owned the land and the villages and were the chief retainers of the local and provincial rulers."[84]
"There is some evidence to show that communes owned whole irrigation systems and the regions irrigated by them, as well as settlements and grazing lands."[85] "the state and large land-holders, who tried to attach members of the commune to the land - a process that ultimately led to the emergence of feudalism in Central Asia."[86]
3. Khwarazm
"All but unknown today, the civilization of Khwarazm between AD 100 and 600 was a highly sophisticated society. Its capital and main religious center, Topraq Qala, in what is now western Uzbekistan, featured a walled, 1100-by-1600-foot rectilinear compound. Elegantly built, it consisted of grand three-storied palaces and temples."[87]
4.

Yuezhi confederation organized into five major tribes which were led by yabgu (tribal chiefs). However, it might also be "the five Kingdom were in fact not the Yuezhi people, but were the people in the state of Daxia. ... where each town carried out its affairs in its own way and was ruled by a so-called 'minor chief'. The Yuezhi did not wipe out these 'minor chiefs,' but 'made them all into their subjects' after they had conquered the state of Daxia."[88] Daxia = Bactria. By turn of the millennium the Yuezhi "had dominated Greco-Bactria for almost two centuries."[89] "State in Kangju/Sogdia "acknowledged nominal sovereignty to the Yuezhi."[90]

♠ Religious levels ♣ [2-4] ♥ levels.

Sivaism, Vishnuism, Jainism, Buddhism - and their different schools "penetrated Central Asia" from India where there was Zoroastrianism, Greek divinities, pre-Zoroastrian cults, and ancient Iranian religions of the horseriding nomads.[91] Kushan rulers had "a liberal and tolerant attitude to all religions."[92] "The Kushan rulers patronized religious cults to assert their legitimacy in power of the conquered sedentary societies".[93] "religious cults appeared on the coins - the dynastic symbol - to indicate religious devotion of a particular king. A variety of gods and cults were documented on Kushan coins - the Sumerian goddess Nana on her lion, Persian gods Oado and Atash, Indian cults of Buddha and Shiva. Zoroastrian fire worship left many remains."[94]


_Sivaism_

1. King

"it seems that originally the divine patron of the Kushan dynasty was the ancient Iranian moon god. In view of the close connection between Siva and the moon, dynastic religious ideas may have also suggested to Vima [Kadphises] the choice of Siva as his divine patron."[95]
2.

Syncretic religious cult which "apparently combined Greek, Iranian and non-Sivaite Indian elements." [96]


_Dynastic protector religion_

1. King

2. Bakanapati (temple-keeper)[97]

"a network of imperial temples dedicated to the divine protectors of the dynasty, where statues of the royal ancestors were also erected".[98] "The main source of their legitimacy was no doubt the divinity of claim to their kingdom. Rulers of Kushans were called 'Son of God' or the 'Son of Heaven' ... the worship of heaven, prevailed in many tribes of the steppe. Kushan probably, like other tribes, claim the legitimacy of the chief deity of the sky."[99]

Inscription in the Rabatak temple lists gods 'from whom the king as obtained kingship.' Five are Zoroastrian but two are not.[100] Muzhdwan "is portrayed as a Yuezhi rider with a typical Scythian hooded cap, and it seems reasonable to suppose that Kanishka took this personal protector from his own stock of family gods."[101] Terracotta figurines of horsemen with pointy caps are found at Kushan-Bactrian sites and usually assigned to category of 'rider gods' or 'heroized ancestors.'[102] Umma was a goddess ("not to be confused with the Indian goddess Uma who is shown on some later coins") whose Iranian name means 'highest' or 'supreme'. The Rabatak inscription said she was "welcoming in her presence all the other gods named here." Scythians had a goddess called Tabiti (Herodotus) who might fit her description as a "bestower of power".[103] A terracotta of Umma found in a former Yuezhi territory showed her with "strikingly Yuezhi facial features."[104]

"The family temple (Devakula Sanskrit) of the Kushan royal family was where protective deity or deities should be worshiped ... The deification of the ruler which was so prevalent in the Roman and Hellenistic world as well as among the Iranians was thus introduced into India and left a mark on the future development of Hindu kingship."[105]


_Vishnuism_

1.

2.


_Jainism_

1.

2.


_Zoroastrianism_

1.

2.
3.
4.

"the pantheon shown on Kushan coins belongs almost entrely to the Zoroastrian religion - which was the religion of the local populatn of Bactria at least from the Achaemenian period - though the iconographic types were mostly borrowed from Greece and India."[106]


_Buddhism_

1.

2.
3.
4.

Kanishka I (128-150 CE): "Several traditions indicate that Kanishka sponsored the fourth Buddhist Council meeting at Jalandhar, which gave birth to Mahayana Buddhism."[107]

Mahayana Buddhism introduced new deities - bodhisattvas - "to help others cross the ocean of suffering". Bodhisattvas like Avalokiteshvaras would help people in trouble and responded to donations. Other bodhisattvas included Maitreya and Amitabha who had paradises for Buddhists not yet able to reach nirvana. "The Mahayana vision of future lives was no doubt much more attractive to the pragmatically inclined. Rebirth into a beautiful heaven was much more desirable than reaching nirvana. For merchants, making donations was a much more satisfying and practical approach than self-denial. The gifts given in the name of the Buddha or bodhisattvas became the property of Buddhist monasteries."[108]

"They were influenced by Buddhism to some extent but none of them actually converted to Buddhism. They patronized the Buddhist establishment and gave full respect to the Buddhist community and Buddhist religion, but continued to worship a large number of Iranian, Mesopotamian, and even some Indian deities."[109]


_Hinduism_

1.

2.

"When the Kushans entered South Asia, they encountered both Brahmanism and Buddhism, and cults of both religions appeared on Kushan coins."[110]

_Christianity_

1.

2.

"Later Armenian sources refer to the success of Iranian Christianity, spreading to the Kushan Empire and even into India, where it still survives (in Kerala)."[111]


♠ Military levels ♣ [4-6] ♥ [112]

1. Kushana king

2. Chiang (military general), Dandanayaka, Mahadandanayaka
3. Baladhika (commander of an army)
4.
5.
6. Common soldiers
likely to have been at least one level between the commander of the army and the ordinary soldier, especially as the organization was complex enough to warrant a general above a commander of an army. changing code to range of 4-6

NOTE: Dandanayaka and Mahadandanayaka may have referred to a judge, magistrate, head police-officer or an army general. They may have have been used to perform judicial, civil and military duties at different times or as the occasions demanded.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ These may have also acted as civil or judicial officials. Probably covered by profession of Mahadandanyaka or Dandanayaka.[113]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ There is some evidence that professional guilds provided soldiers who protected guild property in peace-time, were placed at the disposal of the state during war. [114]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Sivaism, Vishnuism, Jainism, Buddhism - and their different schools "penetrated Central Asia" from India where there was Zoroastrianism, Greek divinities, pre-Zoroastrian cults, and ancient Iranian religions of the horseriding nomads.[115]

"Buddhist monasteries became large economic enterprises, engaging in all kinds of business, including trading, investing, and the making of alcohol."[116]

The Kara-tepe inscriptions show that an important role was played by Buddhist monks and officials as well as the Zoroastrian priesthood. [117]

Buddhist monasteries had the patronage of Kushan rulers and rich traders, also Zoroastrian followers. [118]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ the Kushan city had a special official, the dovarika, who would shut the city gates at night show the way to strangers. [119]

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥ Professions were hereditary [120]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥ Professions were hereditary [121]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ cities were laid out with organized areas for administration. [122] Empire's founder "Kujala issued the first Kushan coins from Taxila, which were patterned on the Roman coinage."[123]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ There is textual evidence of cases being decided, as well as references to the first King being steadfast in the law. [124]

"The Mat inscription of Huvishka refers to him as 'steadfast in the true law', a title also borne by the first Kushan king, Kujula Kadphises on his coins."[125]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred present ♥ There were such things as legal documents and land transfer deeds written in Kharoshthi.[126]

"The dandanayaka was presumably the wielder of the rod (dandayaka), acting both as commissioner of police to prevent crime and as a judge or criminal magistrate administering justice.""[127]

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ There were such things as legal documents and land transfer deeds written in Kharoshthi.[128]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ There were such things as legal documents and land transfer deeds written in Kharoshthi.[129]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Irrigation canals were constructed on large scale. "As a result of the extensive development of irrigation networks, practically all the main provinces of Central Asia were brought under cultivation during this period and the establishment of the major crop-growing oases was completed."[130] "In the K’ang-chü-Kushan period, when irrigation systems reached their highest level of development, the area under irrigation along the lower reaches of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya totalled 35,000-38,000 km2 (13,000 km2 on the lower Amu Darya and 22,000-25,000 km2 on the lower Syr Darya). Thus, in antiquity, the land area under irrigation along the lower reaches of the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya was four times greater than it is today. ... not more than 10-15 per cent of the land area, the irrigation zone, was directly used for crop-raising, in spite of the substantial supply of water."[131] "The process of carrying water to the fields was improved and various water distribution devices were introduced. Irrigation was effected in accordance with a specific flow pattern: main river, head, main canal, distribution canal, irrigation canal and fields."[132] "The major achievements of Kushan irrigation engineering included the boring of tunnel-like water-intake channels at the heads of main canals that emerged from the sheer rock sides of a mountain river, and the construction of aqueducts across ravines or gaps in mountain ridges."[133]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred absent ♥ unknown. Wells feature in literary descriptions of cities. [134]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ The Purushapura-Bactra Highway. This connected Gandhara "with important Buddhist cultural and commercial centers in Central Asia in the Kushan Period."[135] Conningham reinforces this code of present by attesting to the roads within Taxila[136]
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ inferred present ♥ Construction of large irrigation canals (e.g. Dargom, Bulungur, Narpai and Shahrud) on the Zaravshan (the Salar canal in the Tashkent oasis) have been dated to the Kushana empire. [137] Were these canals used for transport? "The surviving portions of a canal of the K'ang-chu period (fourth century b.c. to first century a.d.) measure as much as 20 m from bank to bank; those dating from the Kushan period (second and third centuries a.d.) measure only 10-11 m, but have steep sides and are much deeper."[138]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Accounts from Rome of Transactions in Kushan ports. [139] "According to the report of Aristobulos (quoted by Strabo XI.7.3), the Oxus river was navigable and many Indian goods were transported on it as far as the Hyrcanian Sea, and from there to Albania and the Pontic region."[140] "Ships arriving from the Mediterranean anchored at Barygaza, Sopara, and Kalyana."[141]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ "the extraction of minerals also increased considerably during the Kushan period. Metal ores, semi-precious and precious stones and other minerals were regularly mined. Mining developed rapidly, especially in the eastern regions of Central Asia. It is known from the written sources that iron, gold, silver and nephrite were mined in the mountains of Ferghana and Sogdiana, silver in Ilak, copper in Karamazar, rubies in Badakhshan and lapis lazuli in Bactria."[142]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥ unknown. General reference for writing system: [143]
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ the state chancery used both "Bactrian written in Greek script and Gandhari written in Kharoshthi".[144] There also was a "formulae transmitted from the Achaemenians."[145] "Bactrian writing was widely used throughout the Kushan Empire both for official purposes and for everyday life."[146] Conningham reinforces the code of present by discussing the assortment of leather documents with Bactrian writing.[147]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ The administration apparatus used the dual languages of Bactrian written with Greek script and Gandahari written in the Kharoshthi script. [148] Coningham validates this. [149] the state chancery used both "Bactrian written in Greek script and Gandhari written in Kharoshthi".[150] There also was a "formulae transmitted from the Achaemenians."[151] In India two scripts were already in use: Brahmi and Kharosthi.[152]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ Bactrian Greek; Kharosthi script; Brahmi and Kharosthi and several literary languages of Sanskrit and different Prakrits. [153]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ General reference for Kinds of Written Documents [154]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ The Macedonian Calendar was used[155] for official documents.[156] The Bactrian variant was also in use. [157] Khwarazm region: "The Khwarazmian solar calendar, related to the Zoroastrian system, is known to us thanks to Biruni, who argued that it was in advance of most other ancient systems for measuring time." [158]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Buddhists, Hindi, and Zoroastrian religious texts were present. [159]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ "Kanishka II was, without doubt, a great protector of Buddhism and founded monasteries and built stupas... [he convened] the Buddhist synod in Kashmir, a decisive turning-point in the life of the Buddhist schools. According to tradition, this synod of the Sarvastivada school compiled the Jnanaprasthanam and entrusted Asvaghosa, the famous poet, with providing for the correct language form of the commentary written by Katyayana. Essentially, his charge was to rewrite the Buddhist works in Sanskrit."[160] Buddhists, Hindi, and Zoroastrian religious texts were present. [161] "Most of the literature produced was in the form of religious text and commentraries. These texts were written in Gandhari language and Kharoshthi."[162] Ghosaka: "Buddhist theologian and author from Balkh who played an important role in the deliberations at the Fourth Buddhist Council in Kashmir in the first century AD."[163]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Law books (smritis), work of dramaturgy, writings on grammar and metres [164]
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Health, medicine, astronomy, astrology and mathematics. The astronomical text Yavanajataka [165] "Tolstov, in his study of the remains of the ancient irrigation works in Chorasmia, noted that it was precisely during the period of antiquity that a school of irrigation engineers and high priests of science emerged at Chorasmia; it remained in existence until the time of Qutayba's campaign against Khwarizm (ancient Chorasmia). The school included experts in mathematics, water engineering, cartography, astronomy and calendrical observations, which were of great importance for an extensive irrigation economy."[166] Part of Chorasmia region is within boundaries of Kushan Empire.
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Poetical works, dramas and a play called Mrichchhakatika by Sudraka [167] "Kanishka II ... [convened] the Buddhist synod in Kashmir, a decisive turning-point in the life of the Buddhist schools. According to tradition, this synod of the Sarvastivada school compiled the Jnanaprasthanam and entrusted Asvaghosa, the famous poet, with providing for the correct language form of the commentary written by Katyayana. Essentially, his charge was to rewrite the Buddhist works in Sanskrit."[168]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ The economy of the Kushan Empire was based on trade.[169]
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥ The economy of the Kushan Empire was based on trade.[170]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ Roman coins [171]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Empire's founder "Kujala issued the first Kushan coins from Taxila, which were patterned on the Roman coinage."[172] The gold coinage introduced by Vima Kadphises used a gold dinar that copied the weight standard of the Roman gold aureus. Most of the early coinage was made of bronze, and each coin bore a legend in Bactrian using Kushan script based on the Greek alphabet [173] The coins of Vima Kadphises "are of such high quality that some historians believe that they must have been made by Roman mint masters in the service of the Kushana kings."[174]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Trade system very well developed.
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Stephen Dean; Alice Williams; Edward A L Turner; Thomas Cressy ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ Saka warriors who destroyed the Greco-Bactrian city of Ai Khanoum in 145 BCE (and may have used similar military technology to the Kushan nomads) used bronze arrowheads.[175]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Bronze helmets [176] Saka warriors who destroyed the Greco-Bactrian city of Ai Khanoum in 145 BCE (and may have used similar military technology to the Kushan nomads) used bronze arrowheads.[177]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Iron breastplates and shaped pieces. [178]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ At this time in Central Asia if high-quality steel was used it would have been imported. The following sources suggest later dates for fine steel. However we code present because the Kushans occupied northern India (a location repeatedly associated with fine steel) which as early as 1st CE was exporting iron and steel as far as East Africa.[179] Reference for high quality of the steel (no beginning date provided): “In the context of this work, it is important to note that crucible steel of fine quality was made at Herat, in Bukhara and in northern India.”[180] Reference for high quality of the steel (this one dates from 900 CE): "Further east from Merv along the Silk Road is a region praised for its iron and steel production by Greek, Islamic, and Chinese writers. The Sogdian state of Ustrushana, a mountainous region east of Samarkand, and the Ferghana basin ... material related to the medieval iron and steel industry has been uncovered here. Most relevant ... is a workshop excavated at a city-site of the +9th-13th centuries in Feghana, at Eski Achsy, Uzbekistan. ..” Crucible fragments ”The excavators consider that the process used here was direct production of steel from ore, just as He Tangkun argues for the Luoyang crucibles. It is quite possible, however, that they were (also) used in co-fusion steel production as suggested by the Merv excavators."[181] Fine steel swords may have been produced at an earlier time than 900 CE with the technology coming from northern India or from this region via Persia: In Tibet c700 CE "steel swords were certainly available through trade with Sogdia and Fergana ... and many steel blades are known from Central Asia from the late first millennium until the arrival of Genghis Khan in the early thirteenth century."[182] "The Sogdian cities of Samarqand and Bukhara probably also manufactured iron and steel weapons that were exported to Tibet. We know that by the early eighth century, the Sogdians, having probably borrowed the technology from the Sasanians, were manufacturing mail armor and offered suits of the material as gifts to the Tang court in 718. ... The Sasasnians may themselves have developed knowledge of steelmaking from contacts with northern India."[183] "The principal centres for the manufacture of steel weapons in Central Asia were Khwarazm, Ferghana and northern India.”[184] Burnished steel represented in image of warrior. [185]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ "Lively contacts and easy communications promoted the rise and spread of a fairly uniform nomadic culture in the steppe zone. The same types of horse-harness (bridle, bit, cheek-piece, saddle, trappings), arms (bow, bow-case, arrow and quiver, sword, battle-axe, mail) and garments (trousers, caftan, waist-girdle, boots, pointed cap) were used in the steppe zone from Central Europe to Korea."[186] "There are a number of artistic depictions, from different eras, that show steppe warriors on horseback and armed with a javelin". [187] ET: Whilst searching for data for the Hephthalites I found this late 19th century quote from an encyclopaedia. I cannot confirm it refers to the Hephthalites but it mentions horsemen. Did the horse backed warriors also carry a javelin? Bone-tipped javelins are less likely to leave finds for archaeologists. "Like the Mongols they were a race of horsemen. They fought with bone-tipped javelins, with sabers, and with slings or lassoes. They ate herbs and half- raw meat, which they first used as saddles ; and they clothed themselves with the skins of wild animals”.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Weapon of the Americas and extremely unlikely to have been present here
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ Slings.[188]
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Previously coded "present". Engravings from the Oxus temple of Takht-i Sangin show mounted archers with self-bow. [189] is this correct - do the engraves show mounted archers with both composite bows and self-bows?
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Engravings from the Oxus temple of Takht-i Sangin show mounted archers with compound bow.[190] Composite bow.[191] Saka warriors who destroyed the Greco-Bactrian city of Ai Khanoum in 145 BCE (and may have used similar military technology to the Kushan nomads) used bows, lances and long swords.[192] Yuezhi were mounted archers supported by heavy lancers.[193]
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred present ♥ 'Kanishka's Central Asian identity is confirmed by his appearance in a statue that was discovered near Mathura. Although the statue depicts the king wearing a long coat and boots, with a huge sword in one hand and a cross-bow like contraption in the other.' [194] "Even with strong crossbows that shoot far, and long halberds that hit at a distance, the Hsiung-nu would not be able to ward them off. If the armors are sturdy and the weapons sharp, if the repetition crossbows shot far, and the platoons advance together, the Hsiung-nu will not be able to withstand. If specially trained troops are quick to release (their bows) and the arrows in a single stream hit the target together, then the leather outfit and wooden shields of the Hsiung-nu will not be able to protect them. If they dismount and fight on foot, when swords and halberds clash as [the soldiers] come into close quarters, the Hsiung-nu, who lack infantry training, will not be able to cope." [195]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon.[196]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as came later in history. [197]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as came later in history. [198](Present: mace, heavy sword, dagger, trident, battle-axe, spear, scythe[199])

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ "Among their weapons we find the compound bow, bronze and bone arrowheads (their arrows also contained beads that gave them a whistling effect), broadswords, short swords, lances, and maces." [200]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Battle-axes.[201]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Daggers.[202]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Long swords.[203] Most common weapon was a large, double-edged iron sword of 1.2m.[204] Saka warriors who destroyed the Greco-Bactrian city of Ai Khanoum in 145 BCE (and may have used similar military technology to the Kushan nomads) used bows, lances and long swords.[205] Khalchyan sculpture depicts swords.[206]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Weapons included the cataphractus lance. There also seem to have been shorter infantry spears, tridents and other more esoteric weapons.[207] Spears.[208] Saka warriors who destroyed the Greco-Bactrian city of Ai Khanoum in 145 BCE (and may have used similar military technology to the Kushan nomads) used bows, lances and long swords.[209] Yuezhi were mounted archers supported by heavy lancers.[210]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ "Even with strong crossbows that shoot far, and long halberds that hit at a distance, the Hsiung-nu would not be able to ward them off. If the armors are sturdy and the weapons sharp, if the repetition crossbows shot far, and the platoons advance together, the Hsiung-nu will not be able to withstand. If specially trained troops are quick to release (their bows) and the arrows in a single stream hit the target together, then the leather outfit and wooden shields of the Hsiung-nu will not be able to protect them. If they dismount and fight on foot, when swords and halberds clash as [the soldiers] come into close quarters, the Hsiung-nu, who lack infantry training, will not be able to cope." [211]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ requires expert opinion
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ "Donkeys were among the key pack animals used to carry silk from the Pacific Ocean to the Mediterranean" [212]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ The 32nd Discourse delivered by Dio Cocceianus Chrysostomus (sometime after 112 CE) indicated that the Bactrians (who in this context should be identified with the Kushans) were highly skilled in the art of horsemanship and that horse riders were often among the vanguards of the Kushana army. Chinese translations of Buddhist texts also refer to campaigns led by Kanishka I riding a horse.[213] The armies of the Kushans were largely light horse archers, supported by the heavier armoured Cataphract Calvary.[214] "Lively contacts and easy communications promoted the rise and spread of a fairly uniform nomadic culture in the steppe zone. The same types of horse-harness (bridle, bit, cheek-piece, saddle, trappings), arms (bow, bow-case, arrow and quiver, sword, battle-axe, mail) and garments (trousers, caftan, waist-girdle, boots, pointed cap) were used in the steppe zone from Central Europe to Korea."[215]
♠ Camels ♣ present ♥ Chinese account about Steppe Nomads along the silk road, close to Sogdiana and camels are indigenous to the area: Sima's records state "Most of their domestic animals are horses, cows, sheep, and they also have rare animals such as camels, donkeys, mules, hinnies and other equines known as t’ao-t’u and tien-hsi. They move about according to the availability of water and pasture, have no walled towns or fixed residences, nor any agricultural activities, but each of them has a portion of land.54 " [216] "The Weilue describes how the population of eastern India 'ride elephants and camels into battle, but currently they provide military service and taxes to the Yuezhi [Kushans]'."[217]
♠ Elephants ♣ present ♥ The inclusion of elephant riders among the vanguards are alluded to on some coins and in the Tsa pao-tsang ching.[218] Native Indian auxiliaries using elephants are also reported to have been in use. The elephants seem to have been used as an advance screen for the main force as well as shock troops. [219] "The Weilue describes how the population of eastern India 'ride elephants and camels into battle, but currently they provide military service and taxes to the Yuezhi [Kushans]'."[220]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ "Even with strong crossbows that shoot far, and long halberds that hit at a distance, the Hsiung-nu would not be able to ward them off. If the armors are sturdy and the weapons sharp, if the repetition crossbows shot far, and the platoons advance together, the Hsiung-nu will not be able to withstand. If specially trained troops are quick to release (their bows) and the arrows in a single stream hit the target together, then the leather outfit and wooden shields of the Hsiung-nu will not be able to protect them. If they dismount and fight on foot, when swords and halberds clash as [the soldiers] come into close quarters, the Hsiung-nu, who lack infantry training, will not be able to cope." [221]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Boots, belts and other aspects of Armour. [222] Light tunics, riding trousers.[223]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ According to Robinson (1967) as far as the Persian tradition, "cavalry, it would appear, did not always carry shields, and it is not until Sassanian times that warriors, particularly the heavily armed horsemen, are shown carrying small convex circular shields."[224] However, there are depictions of round shields on coins. [225]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Contemporary images show helmets being worn. [226] Saka warriors who destroyed the Greco-Bactrian city of Ai Khanoum in 145 BCE (and may have used similar military technology to the Kushan nomads) left illustrations in Sogdia (Orlat) depicting chainmail, domed helmets, high-collared metal-plated corselets.[227] "cap-like helmets and metal suits that cover their legs and sleeves with concentric armoured bands."[228]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ Iron breastplates and shaped pieces. [229] Armour seems to have included the archaic Greek boetian helmets. [230]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ Arm and leg protectors depicted in visual sources.[231] "cap-like helmets and metal suits that cover their legs and sleeves with concentric armoured bands."[232]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Coin depicts Vasudeva wearing chainmail. [233] Saka warriors who destroyed the Greco-Bactrian city of Ai Khanoum in 145 BCE (and may have used similar military technology to the Kushan nomads) left illustrations in Sogdia (Orlat) depicting chainmail, domed helmets, high-collared metal-plated corselets.[234] "Their horses also wear coats of scale or chain armour."[235]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ Kings are shown on coins wearing scale shaped plates, and some evidence from archaeological digs have found iron plates. [236] "Sauromatian bronze helmets and scale or plate armor not of local production appear in the Volga River region and southern Ural Steppes in the fifth-fourth century b.c., showing an increase in the exchange economy among neighboring communities." [237] "Scale armor of leather protected his body. He carried a twig-woven quiver for a bow and sometimes more than 200 arrows, covered with leather and decorated with an umbor, an arms belt with a buckle for crossing the belts; a richly decorated quiver hook; a long spear with a massive head and spike; a short iron akinakes sword; and iron axe. This complete image recalls a picture from a novel featuring medieval western European knights; these Sarmatian 'proto-types,' however, are 2,000 years older.”[238] "Their horses also wear coats of scale or chain armour."[239]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ Armour seems to have included the muscle cuirass. Kings are shown on coins wearing scale shaped plates, and some evidence from archaeological digs have found iron plates. [240] "Sauromatian bronze helmets and scale or plate armor not of local production appear in the Volga River region and southern Ural Steppes in the fifth-fourth century b.c., showing an increase in the exchange economy among neighboring communities." [241] Saka warriors who destroyed the Greco-Bactrian city of Ai Khanoum in 145 BCE (and may have used similar military technology to the Kushan nomads) left illustrations in Sogdia (Orlat) depicting chainmail, domed helmets, high-collared metal-plated corselets.[242]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ [absent; present] ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥ Landlocked polity.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ Landlocked polity.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ "Palaces and castles were built on high platforms and surrounded by strong fortifications."[243]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ "Palaces and castles were built on high platforms and surrounded by strong fortifications."[244]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ inferred from description of fortifications suggesting moat features
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ Clay blocks and adobe bricks used for fortification walls.[245] Many towns enclosed by thick walls with rectangular towers.[246] "When the Kushan conquered this region they established a third administrative capital at a site called Sirsukh close to Taxila. This city was strongly defended with a stone wall that included projecting circular bastions for archers."[247]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ "The strong fortification walls reinforced by projecting towers, and the intricate labyrinths with multi-tiered loopholes, were some examples of major developments in the art of fortification at this time."[248]
♠ Long walls ♣ 60 ♥ Do not have an estimate for the length of the Bactria-Soghdia wall, so using the Kam Pirak wall for now. Long wall building: "The tradition seems more prevalent in Central Asia, although the oldest dated example is only Achaemenid. This is the wall of Kam Pirak, a rammed mud defensive wall that has been traced for about 60 kilometres across northern Afghanistan. Later examples abound, either frontier walls such as Kam Pirak that defended entire territories or giant enclosure walls that encircled entire oases. Of the former, the most famous are the frontier walls between Bactria and Soghdia, dating from the third century BC and later used to mark the northern border of the Kushan Empire."[249]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ absent before the gunpowder era


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The king seems to have possessed unfettered powers, as we find no reference in the Kushan records to any advisory body or to councillors corresponding to amatyas and sachivas of the Mauryan period."[250]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The king seems to have possessed unfettered powers, as we find no reference in the Kushan records to any advisory body or to councillors corresponding to amatyas and sachivas of the Mauryan period."[251]

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Kushans were dynastic rulers.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; Edward A L Turner ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ "The Kushan kings derived their royal power from divine patrons, and so they were charismatic kings, human incarnations of divine might and power. As a consequence of their charisma, they also became objects of divine worship in dynastic sanctuaries." [252]

"the Kushan king ascribed his rise to power to Sarva (=́Siva) and Candavira (who may be the same god as Candisvara, the god of the Mahakala temple at Ujjain, probably a special form of́ Siva). Because the circle of gods around́ Siva have a warlike character, it is very likely that the phrase iazado i karisaro 'the warlike divinity' also denoted́ Siva."[253]

"it seems that originally the divine patron of the Kushan dynasty was the ancient Iranian moon god. In view of the close connection between Siva and the moon, dynastic religious ideas may have also suggested to Vima [Kadphises] the choice of Siva as his divine patron. ... the support of the Indian population of his kingdom may have been important for Vima both before and during his Indian campaign."[254]

"A colossal statue of Kaniska near Mathura with a Brahmi inscription labeling him 'Great King, King of Kings, Son of God, Kaniska' shows that he fulfilled the role of 'Universal Emperor' (cakravartin)."[255]

"The divinity of kingship seems to have been the most conspicuous element in the Kushan political system. Their kings were not only accorded the title of 'devaputra' (Son of God), corresponding to the Chinese imperial title "t'ien-tzu" (Son of Heaven), but were deified after death and their statues were set up in a devakula (god house)." [256]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ "The Kushan kings derived their royal power from divine patrons, and so they were charismatic kings, human incarnations of divine might and power. As a consequence of their charisma, they also became objects of divine worship in dynastic sanctuaries." [257]

"A colossal statue of Kaniska near Mathura with a Brahmi inscription labeling him 'Great King, King of Kings, Son of God, Kaniska' shows that he fulfilled the role of 'Universal Emperor' (cakravartin)."[258]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ "The Kushan kings derived their royal power from divine patrons, and so they were charismatic kings, human incarnations of divine might and power. As a consequence of their charisma, they also became objects of divine worship in dynastic sanctuaries." [259] Moreover, slavery was common [260].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ "The Kushan kings derived their royal power from divine patrons, and so they were charismatic kings, human incarnations of divine might and power. As a consequence of their charisma, they also became objects of divine worship in dynastic sanctuaries." [261]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ At different times during Kushan history, and in different combinations, Kushan emperors patronised Greek religion, Hinduism (specifically, Siva worship), Zoroastrianism, and Buddhism [262], as well as a number of less well-known Indo-Iranian cults. Though little can be reconstructed about the latter, Greek religion, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism and Buddhism all make a clear distinction between elites and commoners. In Greek religion and philosophy, only mystery were truly egalitarian [263]; Hinduism is well-known from its caste system [264]; Zoroastrians believed that elites were cosmologically distinct from commoners ('The omniscient Mazdean religion is likened to a mighty tree with one trunk (the mean), two main boughs (action and abstention), three branches (good thoughts, good words, and good deeds), four small branches (the estates of the priests, warriors, husbandmen, and artisans), five roots (the lord of the house, the village headman, the tribal chieftain, the ruler, and the highest religious authority, the representative of Zoroaster on earth ...), and above them all the head of all heads ... the king of kings, the ruler of the whole world.'[265]). Indeed, this fits well with what little is known about Kushan social structure" "There is some direct, and a great deal of indirect, evidence to show that the commune occupied an important place in the socio-economic life of Central Asia and in the ancient East as a whole. This seems to have continued until the Early Middle Ages, for which evidence is available. Thus, the commune in Sogdiana was known as naf; it consisted of the aristocracy (aza ̄t, azatkar), merchants (xvakar), and free peasants (who were members of the commune) and craftsmen (karikar). Of these three categories in the naf the highest status was enjoyed by the azat that is, persons of ‘high and noble birth’, the azatkar or free persons associated with the azat and the ‘children of the azat of aristocratic, noble origin’." [266]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ inferred present ♥ At different times during Kushan history, and in different combinations, Kushan emperors patronised Greek religion, Hinduism (specifically, Siva worship), Zoroastrianism, and Buddhism [267], as well as a number of less well-known Indo-Iranian cults. That prosociality was an important moral value in the Kushan empire may be inferred, perhaps, from the fact that it is promoted by all four of the above-mentioned world religions (not much is known about the Indo-Iranian cults, unfortunately). Buddhism: “The twofold benefit of living a morally good life is linked to a twofold motivation: ‘Protecting oneself, one protects others; protecting others, one protects oneself ’ - just as each acrobat in a balancing act protects his partner by concentrating on himself, and protects himself by concentrating on his partner (see SN 47:19). If we take care of our own spiritual development, we render a service to others; and if we develop love towards others, we thereby also help ourselves. Accordingly, it is explicitly stated, someone who pursues the path of salvation only for his or her own benefit is to be censured, while the one who follows the path for one’s own benefit and for the benefit of others is to be commended (see AN 7:64).” [268] Hinduism: “According to Hindu Dharmashastras, of the four stages of life, the person who is at the householder stage is the anchor of society. The householder’s business is the maintenance and support of those in the other three stages of life: the students who have not yet entered into the world of work, the retirees who have seen the birth of grand- children and spotted their first gray hairs, and the renunciants, those who have left behind not only the world of work and material possession but who have also left behind family and self-interest for a life focused on spiritual freedom. Householders are the ones with material wealth, and their responsibility, their dharma, is to share it with others. [...] The link between the world of the householder and the world of the renunciant is gift giving—dana. The classic image is of the renouncer with the begging bowl, making the rounds for alms. On a daily basis, in Hindu society, food is given to sannyasins and sadhus, the world renouncers who have “cast off” from the settled world of “this shore.” ” [269] “The philosophers taught various versions of the Golden Rule, whereas traditional Greek morality said it was best to help one’s friends and harm one’s enemies. The only philosopher I can think of who specifically advocates “helping people” over “living luxuriously” is the Stoic Musonius Rufus from the first century CE, but he may have been an innovator in that respect. In general the Greeks had no religious or philosophical teachings to compare with Jewish and Christian teachings about almsgiving, gleaning, or caring for “widows and orphans.” Greek cities sometimes gave stipends to orphans if their fathers had died in battle defending the city. The most important traditional religious teaching on this subject was that the gods required people to treat “strangers and suppliants” well. That is, you should assist strangers who come to your door in need (and definitely not harm them). You can see this when Odysseus disguised as a beggar receives hospitality (Homer was a basic school text in the Hellenistic period) or in the Hellenistic myth of Baucis and Philemon, a very poor elderly couple who received two strangers and gave them hospitality. The strangers turned out to be Zeus and Hermes, who rewarded the couple. The belief that the gods “tested” humans by coming down to earth was common Hellenistic Asia Minor, where Paul and Barnabas were mistaken for Zeus and Hermes in disguise (Acts 14). Hellenistic philanthropy was closely tied to piety because the benefactions were usually things like sponsoring a festival or enhancing a sanctuary. Sponsoring a festival meant entertainment and free food distribution, but the main goal was not necessarily to help the poor—it was more to enhance the public good. I think it is very likely that the teachings of philosophers encouraged these sorts of activities, but of course the donors also benefited from increased prestige.” [270] Zoroastrianism: Cantera says that 'from its very beginnings Zoroastrianism has developed an ethical imperative of assistance to the needy members of the community'.[271]

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [272] [273] [274]

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