AfKidar

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Kidarite Kingdom ♥ Kidarite Kingdom.[1] The term "Kidarites" reflects the dynastic name, derived from King Kidara; the people were Chionites or Huns.[2]

♠ Alternative names ♣ Kidarites; Chionites; Kidarite Huns; Huna; Honk; Kushans; Ta Yeuh-chih; Lesser Yeuh-chih ♥ Kidarites, Chionites (Latin authors), 'Huns who are Kidarites' (Greek authors), Huna (Indian chronicles), Honk' and Kushans (Armenian literature), Ta Yueh-chih or Lesser Yueh-chih (Chinese annals).[3] The term "Kidarites" reflects the dynastic name, derived from King Kidara; the people were Chionites or Huns.[4] Junagadh inscription of c457 CE which refers to the reign of Skandagupta (455-467 CE) is referring to the Kidarites (or Hephthalites) by the name 'Mlecchas'.[5]


♠ Peak Date ♣ 420-440 CE ♥ Greatest territorial extent first half of 5th century.[6]

During the reign of king Kidara "the Kidarite kingdom occupied vast territories to the north and south of the Hindu Kush."[7]

Scholars believe that the information about king Kidara's reign in the Pei-shih "was based on the report of Tung Wan sent to the West in 437."[8]

"Kidara's rise to power, the founding of his state and the annexation of the territories to the south of the Hindu Kush ... should be dated to an earlier period ... some time between 390 and 430, but probably before 410."[9]

Further territories may have been taken in India in the mid-5th century when "a considerable portion of central and western Panjab was under Kidarite rule" during the reign of the Gupta king Kumaragupta I (413-455 CE).[10]

Indian inscriptians that refer to reign of Skandagupta (455-467 CE) mention Huna invaders.[11]

the Sassanians "laid waste territories subject to the Kidarites and took fortresses" during Yazdgird II's eastern campaigns and that by 449 CE they had the advantage. however, sometimes the Kidarites got the best of it and in 456 CE they refused to pay tribute.[12]

Capital captured by Sassanids 467 CE which forced Kidarites to retreat south of Hindu Kush to Gandhara.[13]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 388-477 CE ♥

Of 2,000 coins minted in Samarkand 1st-5th CE only 7 have the name of Kidara which suggests "Kidarite rule was short-lived."[14] The numismatics of these coins suggests that the Kidara ones cannot be earlier than mid-4th CE.[15]

Sassanian-type Kidarite coins suggest an early relationship with the Sassanids - perhaps official recognition for Sassanian suzerainty. This could be as early as c350 CE and as late as 388 CE.[16]

300 CE

"It has been suggested that they conquered K'ang-chu and Sogdiana in c. 300 but the literary sources have not yet been corroborated by the archaeological evidence."[17]

350 CE

c350 CE Ammianus Marcellinus (XVI, 9.4) reports that the "Chionites (i.e. the Kidarites) fought in Syria as allies of the Sasanian king, Shapur II (309-379), at the siege of Amida (the modern Diyarbekir)."[18] They were led into battle by a new king called Grumbrates who had an alliance with Shapur II (Ammianus Marcellinus XVII, 5.1).[19] What had happened to the old king? Was this when the alliance was first agreed?

390 CE

"Kidara's rise to power, the founding of his state and the annexation of the territories to the south of the Hindu Kush ... should be dated to an earlier period ... some time between 390 and 430, but probably before 410."[20]
for reign of king Kidara narrative sources suggest c420s CE but numismatists agree his rule began c390 CE.[21]

End

"It was probably not Skandagupta's victories but a new wave of nomadic invaders from the north ... Hephthalites ... that put an end of the Kidarite state in Gandhara and Panjab."[22]
lost Tokharistan to Hepththalites in 467 CE, "residual North Indian kingdom, perhaps in Swat, until 477."[23]

possible kinglist, unknown source

Kidara I, Kungas, Varhran I, Grumbat, Kidara II, Brahmi Buddhatala, Unknown, Varhran II, Goboziko, Salanavira, Vinayaditya, Kandik
Chinese pilgrim Sung Yun visited Gandhara in 520 and discovered Hephthalites were rulers


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ confederate state ♥

During the reign of king Kidara "the Kidarite kingdom occupied vast territories to the north and south of the Hindu Kush." "the principal city of the Kidarites south of the Hindu Kush was situated near present day Peshawar ... Fu-lou-sha ... which probably represents Purushapura ... Its ruler was Kidara's son".[24] Accordng to the Chinese chronicle, the Pei-shih (Annals of the Wei Dynasty)


♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ nominal allegiance; alliance ♥

Sassanian-type Kidarite coins suggest an early relationship with the Sassanids - perhaps official recognition for Sassanian suzerainty. This could be as early as c350 CE and as late as 388 CE.[25]

unknown source

sent an embassy to China 477 CE

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Sassanid Empire I ♥ Accordng to the Chinese chronicle, the Pei-shih (Annals of the Wei Dynasty) "The original nucleus of the Kidarite state was the territory of Tokharistan (now northern Afghanistan and southern Uzbekistan and Tajikstan), which was previously part of the Kushan Empire and subsequently of the Kushano-Sasanians."[26]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ elite migration; continuity ♥ "It has been suggested that they conquered K'ang-chu and Sogdiana in c. 300 but the literary sources have not yet been corroborated by the archaeological evidence."[27] The Kidarites might have been present (rulers?) in Tokharistan under the Kushans.
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Hephthalite Empire ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Eurasian nomadic; Persian; Indian ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 9,000,000 ♥ km squared. Total area of Eurasian nomadic, Persian and Indian cultural regions would be on the scale of 9 million km2 (core regions of these areas).

♠ Capital ♣ Balkh; Gandhara ♥ Accordng to the Chinese chronicle, the Pei-shih (Annals of the Wei Dynasty) the capital was Ying-chien-shih, which "was probably located at the ancient capital of Bactria, near Balkh."[28] Another Chinese source the Wei-shu mistakenly claimed that the capital was transferred to another city.[29] Capital captured by Sassanids 467 CE which forced Kidarites to retreat south of Hindu Kush to Gandhara.[30]

♠ Language ♣ Sogdian; Bactrian; Pahlavi; Brahmi ♥ "We do not know what language the Kidarites spoke".[31] Coinage had "inscriptions in Sogdian, Bactrian, Middle Persian and Brahmi."[32] "The Bactrian script and language were used for a long time after the Kushan age but only small fragments of Bactrian literary works have been discovered so far."[33] Administration was carried out at a regional level and probably in the local language by administrators recruited from the majority settled population.

General Description

The Kidarite state in Central Asia (~ 388-477 CE) may have lasted less than 100 years, but its earliest phase under the suzerainty of the Sassanid Empire is not well known.[34] "It has been suggested that they conquered K'ang-chu and Sogdiana in c. 300 but the literary sources have not yet been corroborated by the archaeological evidence."[35]

The most influential ruler of the Kidarites was perhaps king Kidara: narrative sources place him in the c420s CE but numismatists agree his rule began c390 CE.[36] The Chinese chronicle Peo-Shih (Annals of the Wei Dynasty) say Kidara held "vast territories to the north and south of the Hindu Kush" and his most imporant city was near Peshawar, probably Purushapura,[37] the late capital of the Kushan Empire.

Much like the Kushan Empire little is known about how exactly they ruled their territories. The Kidarites founded new cities (Panjikent and Kushaniya), Kushaniya being a royal foundation[38] that shows that the Kidarites attempted to draw some of their legitimacy from the preceding Kushan period. Zeimal (1996) concludes that "It seems likely that the administrative and government structure created by the Kushans was left largely intact under the Kidarites."[39]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 250,000: 400 CE; [850,000-900,000]: 450 CE ♥ in squared kilometers


King Kidara incorporated Gandhara into the kingdom, and "four other territories to the north of it."[40]

Further territories may have been taken in India in the mid-5th century when "a considerable portion of central and western Panjab was under Kidarite rule" during the reign of the Gupta king Kumaragupta I (413-455 CE).[41]

"total absence of Gupta coins in the western regions of India and in Pakistan" at beginning of Skandagupta's (455-467 CE) reign.[42]

After defeat north of the Hindu Kush by Peroz (Sassanids) in alliance with Hephthalites, Kidarites retreated to Gandhara in India, later to be overrun by the Hephthalites.[43]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [1,000,000-1,500,000] ♥ People.

Estimate for the population of Bactria c400 CE.

Bactria included part of modern Afghanistan and the region McEverdy and Jones (1979) called Russian Turkestan. In 400 CE McEvedy and Jones estimate 2.5 million and 2 million for those entire regions, respectively.[44] At this time in history Bactria would have been the core area of settled population in both these regions (with perhaps the exception of Khwarezm region in Russian Turkestan). However, core Bactria is only a very small part of northern Afghanistan. I would estimate 500,000 at most for the Afghan region and 1,000,000 for the region in Russian Turkestan, and express this as a range of 1-1.5 million.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Samarkand or Balkh 400 CE

Gandhara c450 CE

Captured Gandhara in India.[45]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥ levels.

1. Capital

Balkh, Gandhara.
2. Large town / new foundations
Kidarite rule "coincided with ... the foundation of new cities such as Panjikent and Kushaniya. (The name of the latter probably indicates a Kidarite royal foundation, as neither the Great Kushans nor the Kushano-Sasanians had exerted control over that region.)"[46]
3. Small town ?
4. Village ?

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [3-5] ♥ levels.

1. King

Sources do not tell us whether the new Hephthalite polity was a dynastic regime change or a 'clash of armies'.[47] "It is known, however, that the name Kidara was kept, although now as an honorific title (meaning 'honoured', 'hero', 'valiant'), long after the Kidarite state had ceased to exist, just as the original Kidara used to style himself on coins Kusana Sahi (king of Kushan) many years after the fall of the Empire of the Kushans."[48]
Kidarites were a group of nomadic origin.[49]
Chinese chronicle the Pei-shih claimed that the Kidarites "'move around following their herds of cattle' .... On the other hand, it is known that there were Kidarite capitals both in Gandhara and Tokharistan, and thus that they lived in towns."[50]
"more accurate to think of the Kidarite state not as a unified society but one with a clear distinction between the conquerers - the ruling group - and their subject peoples, the latter preserving their own traditions."[51]


_ Central Administration _

2. Top administrator
Kidarite rule "coincided with ... the foundation of new cities such as Panjikent and Kushaniya. (The name of the latter probably indicates a Kidarite royal foundation, as neither the Great Kushans nor the Kushano-Sasanians had exerted control over that region.)"[52]
"It is tempting to draw an analogy with the vast state of the Kushans. This is not only because the Kidarites claimed to be the successors ... ; a no less important factor is that the former nomadic invaders came into possession of vast territories inhabited by settled agricultural peoples with a culture and traditions dating back many centuries, just as had been the case with the Tokharians ... who created the Kushan Empire. It seems likely that the administrative and government structure created by the Kushans was left largely intact under the Kidarites."[53]
3.
4. Scribes
4. Manager of a Mint
The Kidarite coinage was not a separate monetary system but "an adaptation to the local issues in each area they conquered. In Sogdiana small silver coins were issued ... They followed the design of early Sogdian coins ... In Tokharistan gold inars were issued in the name of Kidara, following the gold coins of the Kushano-Sasanians ... The silver coins of Sasanian type can be attributed to Gandhara and the area around. ... In their Indian territories the Kidarites also issued gold coins based on the model of the Late Kushan dinars".[54]
Economy was advanced enough that copper coinage was minted in quantities that implied it was used as 'small change'. Copper coin design was also an adaptation to existing currency in each region.[55]
The Kidarite monetary system "created favourable conditions for maintaining the established traditions in local trades. ... flourishing international trade networks and wide trading links between various regions of the Kidarite state."[56]
5. Mint worker


_ Provincial government _

2.
Clan and tribal organizations traditional to nomadic peoples were likely "reflected in the administrative structure of the state".[57]

Hephthalites

Western sources suggests the Hephthalites were "a tribal group distinct from and apparently sometimes hostile to" the Kidarites.[58]
Many instances when the Hephthalites were allies with the Sassanians against the Kidarites. Hephthalites also sided with Hormizd faction in dispute for Sassanian kingship.[59]


♠ Religious levels ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels.

There was "a local variety of Zoroastrianism (Mazdaism) in Tokharistan, various expressions of Buddhism and Hinduism in the territory of Gandhara and also, probably, the official Sasanian doctrine."[60]

"It appears that the Kidarites' beliefs had not yet developed into a rigid religious system".[61]

"The Buddhist religious centre in Old Termez, destroyed probably in the 360s-370s by the Sasanians, already lay in ruins".[62]
also at time of Kidarites were abandoned buildings and caves of monasteries.[63]


♠ Military levels ♣ 4 ♥ levels. No data. However, minimum of four levels, probably more, likely as they representated a capable fighting force against the Sasanid and Gupta Empires.

1. King

2.
3.
4. Individual soldier.

Clan and tribal organizations traditional to nomadic peoples were likely "reflected in the administrative structure of the state and in the organization of the army".[64]


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present ♥ Clan and tribal organizations traditional to nomadic peoples were likely "reflected in the administrative structure of the state and in the organization of the army".[65] Presumably a military aristocracy. inferred present for full-time and trained.

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred present ♥ Clan and tribal organizations traditional to nomadic peoples were likely "reflected in the administrative structure of the state and in the organization of the army".[66] Presumably a military aristocracy. inferred present for full-time and trained.

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ There was "a local variety of Zoroastrianism (Mazdaism) in Tokharistan, various expressions of Buddhism and Hinduism in the territory of Gandhara and also, probably, the official Sasanian doctrine."[67]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred present ♥

"It is tempting to draw an analogy with the vast state of the Kushans. This is not only because the Kidarites claimed to be the successors ... ; a no less important factor is that the former nomadic invaders came into possession of vast territories inhabited by settled agricultural peoples with a culture and traditions dating back many centuries, just as had been the case with the Tokharians ... who created the Kushan Empire. It seems likely that the administrative and government structure created by the Kushans was left largely intact under the Kidarites."[68]

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Mints for coinage in all regions.[69]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥

"the former nomadic invaders came into possession of vast territories inhabited by settled agricultural peoples with a culture and traditions dating back many centuries, just as had been the case with the Tokharians ... who created the Kushan Empire. It seems likely that the administrative and government structure created by the Kushans was left largely intact under the Kidarites."[70]


♠ Judges ♣ inferred present ♥

"the former nomadic invaders came into possession of vast territories inhabited by settled agricultural peoples with a culture and traditions dating back many centuries, just as had been the case with the Tokharians ... who created the Kushan Empire. It seems likely that the administrative and government structure created by the Kushans was left largely intact under the Kidarites."[71]

We know from the Kushan period there were such things as legal documents and land transfer deeds written in Kharoshthi.[72]

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ During the Kushan period irrigation canals were constructed on large scale: "As a result of the extensive development of irrigation networks, practically all the main provinces of Central Asia were brought under cultivation during this period and the establishment of the major crop-growing oases was completed."[73] At least some of the irrigation infrastructure would have been maintained into the Kidarite period.
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred absent ♥ During the Kushan period wells feature in literary descriptions of cities.[74]
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ Kidarite rule "coincided with ... the foundation of new cities such as Panjikent and Kushaniya. (The name of the latter probably indicates a Kidarite royal foundation, as neither the Great Kushans nor the Kushano-Sasanians had exerted control over that region.)"[75] We could infer that the new cities were built with market infrastructure. Economy was advanced enough that copper coinage was minted in quantities that implied it was used as 'small change'.[76] The Kidarite monetary system "created favourable conditions for maintaining the established traditions in local trades. ... flourishing international trade networks and wide trading links between various regions of the Kidarite state."[77]
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ Kidarite rule "coincided with ... the foundation of new cities such as Panjikent and Kushaniya. (The name of the latter probably indicates a Kidarite royal foundation, as neither the Great Kushans nor the Kushano-Sasanians had exerted control over that region.)"[78]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ "the former nomadic invaders came into possession of vast territories inhabited by settled agricultural peoples with a culture and traditions dating back many centuries, just as had been the case with the Tokharians ... who created the Kushan Empire. It seems likely that the administrative and government structure created by the Kushans was left largely intact under the Kidarites."[79]
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred present ♥ Across the waterways in Bactria.
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ inferred present ♥ Landlocked. However, Amu Darya river presumably used for trade. Were there any large ports on this river in Bactria? Potentially so: "According to the report of Aristobulos (quoted by Strabo XI.7.3), the Oxus river was navigable and many Indian goods were transported on it as far as the Hyrcanian Sea, and from there to Albania and the Pontic region."[80]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ inferred present ♥ "The Bactrian script and language were used for a long time after the Kushan age but only small fragments of Bactrian literary works have been discovered so far."[81]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ "We do not know what language the Kidarites spoke".[82] Coinage had "inscriptions in Sogdian, Bactrian, Middle Persian and Brahmi."[83] "The Bactrian script and language were used for a long time after the Kushan age but only small fragments of Bactrian literary works have been discovered so far."[84] During the Kushan period there was: Bactrian Greek; Kharosthi script; Brahmi and Kharosthi and several literary languages of Sanskrit and different Prakrits. [85]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ During the Kushan period there was: Bactrian Greek; Kharosthi script; Brahmi and Kharosthi and several literary languages of Sanskrit and different Prakrits. [86]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ "the former nomadic invaders came into possession of vast territories inhabited by settled agricultural peoples with a culture and traditions dating back many centuries, just as had been the case with the Tokharians ... who created the Kushan Empire. It seems likely that the administrative and government structure created by the Kushans was left largely intact under the Kidarites."[87]
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred present ♥ "the former nomadic invaders came into possession of vast territories inhabited by settled agricultural peoples with a culture and traditions dating back many centuries, just as had been the case with the Tokharians ... who created the Kushan Empire. It seems likely that the administrative and government structure created by the Kushans was left largely intact under the Kidarites."[88]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ inferred present ♥ During the Kushan period Buddhist, Hindi, and Zoroastrian religious texts were present[89] and these were all present in this period.
♠ Religious literature ♣ inferred present ♥ During the Kushan period Buddhist, Hindi, and Zoroastrian religious texts were present[90] and these were all present in this period.
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred present ♥ "the former nomadic invaders came into possession of vast territories inhabited by settled agricultural peoples with a culture and traditions dating back many centuries, just as had been the case with the Tokharians ... who created the Kushan Empire. It seems likely that the administrative and government structure created by the Kushans was left largely intact under the Kidarites."[91]
♠ History ♣ ♥ "the former nomadic invaders came into possession of vast territories inhabited by settled agricultural peoples with a culture and traditions dating back many centuries, just as had been the case with the Tokharians ... who created the Kushan Empire. It seems likely that the administrative and government structure created by the Kushans was left largely intact under the Kidarites."[92]
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥ "the former nomadic invaders came into possession of vast territories inhabited by settled agricultural peoples with a culture and traditions dating back many centuries, just as had been the case with the Tokharians ... who created the Kushan Empire. It seems likely that the administrative and government structure created by the Kushans was left largely intact under the Kidarites."[93]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred present ♥ During the Kushan period there were texts on health, medicine, astronomy, astrology and mathematics.[94]
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥ "the former nomadic invaders came into possession of vast territories inhabited by settled agricultural peoples with a culture and traditions dating back many centuries, just as had been the case with the Tokharians ... who created the Kushan Empire. It seems likely that the administrative and government structure created by the Kushans was left largely intact under the Kidarites."[95]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥ The Kidarite monetary system "created favourable conditions for maintaining the established traditions in local trades. ... flourishing international trade networks and wide trading links between various regions of the Kidarite state."[96]
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred present ♥ The Kidarite monetary system "created favourable conditions for maintaining the established traditions in local trades. ... flourishing international trade networks and wide trading links between various regions of the Kidarite state."[97]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ The economy was advanced enough that copper coinage was minted in quantities that implied it was used as 'small change'.[98] Accordng to the Chinese chronicle, the Pei-shih (Annals of the Wei Dynasty) "the Kidarites, whom it refers to as the Ta Yueh-chih (Lesser Yueh-chih), 'have money made of gold and silver'. This information is confirmed by the evidence of their coins.[99] Gold, silver, copper coins.[100] "On Gandharan coins bearing their name the ruler is always clean-shaven, a fashion more typical of Altaic people than of Iranians."[101]
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Thomas Cressy ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ In bronze
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Bronze had been used on the central steppes from 1500 BCE. [102]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Iron had been used in by the steppe nomads from 330 BCE - 200 BCE. [103]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ At this time in Central Asia if high-quality steel was used it would have been imported. The following sources suggest later dates for fine steel. However we code present because the Kidarites occupied northern India (a location repeatedly associated with fine steel) which as early as 1st CE was exporting iron and steel as far as East Africa.[104] Reference for high quality of the steel (no beginning date provided): “In the context of this work, it is important to note that crucible steel of fine quality was made at Herat, in Bukhara and in northern India.”[105] Reference for high quality of the steel (this one dates from 900 CE): "Further east from Merv along the Silk Road is a region praised for its iron and steel production by Greek, Islamic, and Chinese writers. The Sogdian state of Ustrushana, a mountainous region east of Samarkand, and the Ferghana basin ... material related to the medieval iron and steel industry has been uncovered here. Most relevant ... is a workshop excavated at a city-site of the +9th-13th centuries in Feghana, at Eski Achsy, Uzbekistan. ..” Crucible fragments ”The excavators consider that the process used here was direct production of steel from ore, just as He Tangkun argues for the Luoyang crucibles. It is quite possible, however, that they were (also) used in co-fusion steel production as suggested by the Merv excavators."[106] Fine steel swords may have been produced at an earlier time than 900 CE with the technology coming from northern India or from this region via Persia: In Tibet c700 CE "steel swords were certainly available through trade with Sogdia and Fergana ... and many steel blades are known from Central Asia from the late first millennium until the arrival of Genghis Khan in the early thirteenth century."[107] "The Sogdian cities of Samarqand and Bukhara probably also manufactured iron and steel weapons that were exported to Tibet. We know that by the early eighth century, the Sogdians, having probably borrowed the technology from the Sasanians, were manufacturing mail armor and offered suits of the material as gifts to the Tang court in 718. ... The Sasasnians may themselves have developed knowledge of steelmaking from contacts with northern India."[108] "The principal centres for the manufacture of steel weapons in Central Asia were Khwarazm, Ferghana and northern India.”[109]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ "There are a number of artistic depictions, from different eras, that show steppe warriors on horseback and armed with a javelin". [110] ET: Whilst searching for data for the Hephthalites I found this late 19th century quote from an encyclopaedia. I cannot confirm it refers to the Hephthalites but it mentions horsemen. Did the horse backed warriors also carry a javelin? Bone-tipped javelins are less likely to leave finds for archaeologists. "Like the Mongols they were a race of horsemen. They fought with bone-tipped javelins, with sabers, and with slings or lassoes. They ate herbs and half- raw meat, which they first used as saddles ; and they clothed themselves with the skins of wild animals”.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ "The only corroboration of the presence of the Kidarites in Sogdiana is provided by early Sogdian coins (see also pages 128 et seq.) with the image of an archer on the reverse and the word kydr (Kidara) in the obverse legend."[111]
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon.[112]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ absent before the gunpowder era
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ absent before the gunpowder era

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "Among the steppe riders a dagger was typically carried in all periods, and a number of dagger designs are encountered in the archaeological and artistic record." [113]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥
♠ Camels ♣ present ♥ "Bactrian camels began to be used for cavalry between 500 and 100 BC."[114]
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ Extremely unlikely they would not use river boats.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥ Landlocked polity.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ Landlocked polity.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Kidarite rule "coincided with the building of new fortifications" (Samarkand, Paykent).[115]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Kidarite rule "coincided with the building of new fortifications" (Samarkand, Paykent).[116]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥
♠ Moat ♣ ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ Kidarite rule "coincided with the building of new fortifications" (Samarkand, Paykent).[117]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ absent before the gunpowder era

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ present ♥ "It seems likely that the administrative and government structure created by the Kushans was left largely intact under the Kidarites."[118] There likely was no central administration as such, more likely regional administrations which the Kidarites may have supervised. This may be suggested by the Kidarite coinage which was not a separate monetary system but "an adaptation to the local issues in each area they conquered. In Sogdiana small silver coins were issued ... They followed the design of early Sogdian coins ... In Tokharistan gold inars were issued in the name of Kidara, following the gold coins of the Kushano-Sasanians ... The silver coins of Sasanian type can be attributed to Gandhara and the area around. ... In their Indian territories the Kidarites also issued gold coins based on the model of the Late Kushan dinars".[119] The Kidarites as a nomadic people with no experience of settled government were constrained by their lack of knowledge and dependence on the existing administrative structures and skills of the settled people.
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ inferred present ♥ It is "more accurate to think of the Kidarite state not as a unified society but one with a clear distinction between the conquerers - the ruling group - and their subject peoples, the latter preserving their own traditions."[120] The original Kidara used to style himself on coins Kusana Sahi (king of Kushan)".[121] "just as had been the case with the Tokharians ... who created the Kushan Empire. It seems likely that the administrative and government structure created by the Kushans was left largely intact under the Kidarites."[122] The Kidarites as a nomadic people with no experience of settled life were constrained by their lack of knowledge and dependence on the existing settled cultures and the skills of their people. For example, if the king wanted his son to be educated to read and write in the local language then he would have to hire a teacher from a non-Kidarite family. Though they imposed themselves on the settled people through force they would have to make compromises if they wished to assimilate to settled life, which they apparently attempted to do as they had Kidarite capitals "both in Gandhara and Tokharistan, and thus ... they lived in towns."[123].
♠ Impeachment ♣ inferred absent ♥ It is "more accurate to think of the Kidarite state not as a unified society but one with a clear distinction between the conquerers - the ruling group - and their subject peoples, the latter preserving their own traditions."[124] The original Kidara used to style himself on coins Kusana Sahi (king of Kushan)".[125] "just as had been the case with the Tokharians ... who created the Kushan Empire. It seems likely that the administrative and government structure created by the Kushans was left largely intact under the Kidarites."[126] Very unlikely that the settled people were able to impeach the Kidarite king whose rule over them was imposed through force.

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ inferred present ♥ Dynastic rulers like the Kushans? It is "more accurate to think of the Kidarite state not as a unified society but one with a clear distinction between the conquerers - the ruling group - and their subject peoples".[127]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ inferred present ♥ "The key to understanding the ideology of the Kidarite rulers probably lies in their tendency to consider themselves the heirs of the Kushan kings (many expressions of which have been mentioned above). Indeed, this is how they were seen by the neighbouring peoples. It is for future investigations (especially in the field of archaeology) to show how profoundly and consistently the Kushan heritage was assimilated by the Kidarites." [128] This is what we know about the relationship between Kushan rulers and their gods: "The Kushan kings derived their royal power from divine patrons, and so they were charismatic kings, human incarnations of divine might and power. As a consequence of their charisma, they also became objects of divine worship in dynastic sanctuaries." [129]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ inferred present ♥ "The key to understanding the ideology of the Kidarite rulers probably lies in their tendency to consider themselves the heirs of the Kushan kings (many expressions of which have been mentioned above). Indeed, this is how they were seen by the neighbouring peoples. It is for future investigations (especially in the field of archaeology) to show how profoundly and consistently the Kushan heritage was assimilated by the Kidarites." [130] "The Kushan kings derived their royal power from divine patrons, and so they were charismatic kings, human incarnations of divine might and power. As a consequence of their charisma, they also became objects of divine worship in dynastic sanctuaries." [131]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ [present; absent] ♥ There was "a local variety of Zoroastrianism (Mazdaism) in Tokharistan, various expressions of Buddhism and Hinduism in the territory of Gandhara and also, probably, the official Sasanian doctrine."[132] Zoroastrian eschatology held that the potential for resurrection and salvation was universal [133]. However, in the fifth century, a new sect, Mazdakism, advocated "egalitarianism in terms of sharing wealth and property, including women" and briefly resulted in "a land redistribution that diminished the power of both the priestly and upper classes, and benefitted the lower classes in both Iran and the client states to the west" [134]. This, as well as the emphasis placed in both iconography and inscriptions on the exhalted status of rulers and priests [135], suggests that the Zoroastrianism practiced by the Sasanians drew a stark line between rulers and commoners. Hinduism, of course, is usually associated with the existence of a caste system [136]. As for Buddhism, it is fundamentally egalitarian [137].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ There was "a local variety of Zoroastrianism (Mazdaism) in Tokharistan, various expressions of Buddhism and Hinduism in the territory of Gandhara and also, probably, the official Sasanian doctrine."[138] Zoroastrian eschatology held that the potential for resurrection and salvation was universal [139]. However, in the fifth century, a new sect, Mazdakism, advocated "egalitarianism in terms of sharing wealth and property, including women" and briefly resulted in "a land redistribution that diminished the power of both the priestly and upper classes, and benefitted the lower classes in both Iran and the client states to the west" [140]. This, as well as the emphasis placed in both iconography and inscriptions on the exhalted status of rulers and priests [141], suggests that the Zoroastrianism practiced by the Sasanians drew a stark line between rulers and commoners. Hinduism, of course, is usually associated with the existence of a caste system [142].
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ There was "a local variety of Zoroastrianism (Mazdaism) in Tokharistan, various expressions of Buddhism and Hinduism in the territory of Gandhara and also, probably, the official Sasanian doctrine."[143] Hinduism and Zoroastrianism both make a clear distinction between elites and commoners. Zoroastrians believed that elites were cosmologically distinct from commoners ('The omniscient Mazdean religion is likened to a mighty tree with one trunk (the mean), two main boughs (action and abstention), three branches (good thoughts, good words, and good deeds), four small branches (the estates of the priests, warriors, husbandmen, and artisans), five roots (the lord of the house, the village headman, the tribal chieftain, the ruler, and the highest religious authority, the representative of Zoroaster on earth ...), and above them all the head of all heads ... the king of kings, the ruler of the whole world.'[144]).

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ inferred present ♥ There was "a local variety of Zoroastrianism (Mazdaism) in Tokharistan, various expressions of Buddhism and Hinduism in the territory of Gandhara and also, probably, the official Sasanian doctrine."[145] That prosociality was an important moral value in the Kidarite kingdom may be inferred, perhaps, from the fact that it is promoted by all four of the above-mentioned world religions. Buddhism: “The twofold benefit of living a morally good life is linked to a twofold motivation: ‘Protecting oneself, one protects others; protecting others, one protects oneself ’ - just as each acrobat in a balancing act protects his partner by concentrating on himself, and protects himself by concentrating on his partner (see SN 47:19). If we take care of our own spiritual development, we render a service to others; and if we develop love towards others, we thereby also help ourselves. Accordingly, it is explicitly stated, someone who pursues the path of salvation only for his or her own benefit is to be censured, while the one who follows the path for one’s own benefit and for the benefit of others is to be commended (see AN 7:64).” [146] Hinduism: “According to Hindu Dharmashastras, of the four stages of life, the person who is at the householder stage is the anchor of society. The householder’s business is the maintenance and support of those in the other three stages of life: the students who have not yet entered into the world of work, the retirees who have seen the birth of grand- children and spotted their first gray hairs, and the renunciants, those who have left behind not only the world of work and material possession but who have also left behind family and self-interest for a life focused on spiritual freedom. Householders are the ones with material wealth, and their responsibility, their dharma, is to share it with others. [...] The link between the world of the householder and the world of the renunciant is gift giving—dana. The classic image is of the renouncer with the begging bowl, making the rounds for alms. On a daily basis, in Hindu society, food is given to sannyasins and sadhus, the world renouncers who have “cast off” from the settled world of “this shore.” ” [147] Zoroastrianism: Cantera says that 'from its very beginnings Zoroastrianism has developed an ethical imperative of assistance to the needy members of the community'.[148]

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣present♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣present♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣present♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣present♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣present♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣present♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣present♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣present♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣absent♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣absent♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [149] [150] [151]

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