AfDurrn

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Stephen Dean; Alice Williams ♥ ET: Usernames Stephen.dean and Williams contributed to the data sheet (history under old page title Durrani Empire, Afghanistan: 1747 CE - 1826 CE) but the name of Williams is not written anywhere on the data sheet.

♠ Original name ♣ Durrani Empire ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Sadozai Kingdom; Last Afghan Empire ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1761 CE ♥ Durrani power reached its peak in the aftermath of the Third Battle of Panipat during the reign of Ahmad Shah Durrani (1722 CE-1772 CE)[1]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1747-1826 CE ♥ The Dynasty was founded by a former soldier of the Afsharid kindgom, and eventual emir of Khorasan who conquered a large swath of territory. The Durrani dynasty was extinguished when Afghanistan fell into a period of sustained civil war in the period between 1818 CE-1826 CE. The British attempted to install a puppet from the family line but this was not successful. The eventual victor was the the Barkzai dynasty, which came to power in 1837. [2]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ loose ♥ Ahmad Sh¯ah Durr¯an¯ı, Tim¯ ur Sh¯ah and later kings ruled through uniting the tribal groups in Afghanistan under them. However, there were internal rebellions from tribal chiefs and other ethnic groups. The kings after Tim¯ ur Sh¯ah were much less successful in holding the tribes together. [3]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥ The Durrani Empire was independent of other kingdoms and empires, although there were attempts to bring Afghanistan under control of external power e.g. the British. [4]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Afsharid Dynasty ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ The Dynasty was founded by a former soldier of the Afsharid kindgom, and eventual emir of Khorasan who conquered a large swath of territory. [5]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Barkzai Dynasty ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Kabul; Peshwar; Herat ♥ Kabul: 1747-1776 CE; Peshwar 1776-1818 CE; Herat 1818-1826 CE[6]

♠ Language ♣ Pashto; Persian ♥ inferred from geographic region

General Description

The Duranni Empire (1747-1826 CE) was a political entity that lasted 79 years by plundering its higher populated and wealthier neighbors.[7] Founded by a former soldier of the Afsharid Kingdom named Ahmad Shah Durrani, at its maximum extent it covered over 1.5 million KM2 of territory surrounding modern-day Afganistan.[8]

Ahmad Shah Durrani had been elected to the monarchy by an inter-tribal assembly called the Loya Jirga.[9] Following his death in 1772 CE , rebellion and internal strife led to a loss of power so that by 1818 CE, the Durrani controlled a small territory surrounding the capital of Kabul.[10] The regime was finally extinguished when Afghanistan fell into a period of sustained civil war. The eventual victors were members of the Barkzai dynasty, who came to power in 1837 CE .[11]

The Durrani state was an empire sustained and governed through the maintenance of a large number of armed horseman primarily recruited from the Pashtun peoples, although conquests in the period of 1747-1752 CE added horsemen from the Turkmen, Uzbek, Tajik, and Hazara tribes to the King's army.[12] The army was organized under a hierarchical tribal confederacy.[13]

As a loose confederation of tribes there was not much in the way of an administration except for that possessed by conquered elites, who were largely left alone if they made their tribute payments. What short term central administrative posts that did exist were given to members of the governing tribes.[14] Soldiers received almost all the money: paid through generous land grants called Jegeirs, while the remaining revenue was spent on meeting the costs of the large army[15] which expanded rapidly from 16,000 in 1747 to about 120,000 in 1761 CE.[16]


Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Stephen Dean; Alice Williams ♥ ET: Usernames Stephen.dean and Williams contributed to the data sheet (history under old page title Durrani Empire, Afghanistan: 1747 CE - 1826 CE) but the name of Williams is not written anywhere on the data sheet.

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 1,792,000: 1772 CE; [1,790,000-490,000]: 1800 CE; 489,000: 1819 CE ♥ squared kilometers. 1,792,327: 1772 CE; 489,172: 1819 CE Inferred: the 1772 CE estimate is an approximation based on the modern day territory of the component territories of Pakistan, Indian Kashmir, and the former Iranian province of Khorasan. The second date reflects the loss of external territories by the beginning of the nineteenth century. [17]

Conquests including former territory of the Mughal and Maratha Empires in India, the Afsharid Empire of Persia, and the Khanate of Bukhara.[18]

In 1757 CE, the Durrani sacked Delhi and dealt a deathblow to the formerly powerful Moghul Empire. This resulted in the conquest of Punjab, the Sindh, and the Kachi plains.[19]

After 1809 CE, the East India company signed the Treaty of Amritsar with a Sikh Maharaja named Ranjit Singh. Following an agreement to halt expansion southward, Singh conquered Multan and the Kachi plains in 1818 CE, Kashmir in 1819 CE, and finally Peshawar in 1823 CE.[20]

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [3-4] ♥ 3: 1766 CE; 1: 1779 CE. The Durrani ruled from the sparsely populated and rural Pashtun region of Afghanistan. As such, the settlement hierarchy was inverse to the majority of empires in that the large populated cities were underneath the power of a much smaller and extractive rural elite. After the death of the first Shah, internal conflict meant that effective control was limited to the city of Kabul and the surrounding countryside. [21]

1766 CE

1. Kandahār(capital)

2. Provincial capitals (Sind, Punjab, Kashmir, Khosasan, Turkistan)
3. towns
4. Villages

1779 CE

1. Kabul


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 5 ♥ The Durrani empire was a loose confederation of tribes and principalities that evaded attempts to create or maintain central control. Military service was rewarded with the granting of autonomous land grants called Jegeirs that skimmed up to sixty percent of state revenues, with the remainder going to the maintenance of a large army. The local elites were mantained and largely autonomous if appropriate tribute was paid to the tribal elites. [22]

1. Shah

2. Immediate dynastic family and tribe
3. Tribal chieftains and holders of Jageirs (land grants)
4. Subjugated provincial elites
5. Local administrations of conquered territory


♠ Religious levels ♣ [1-2] ♥ 1. Caliphate

2. All Muslims

In theory the Caliphate and governors were the head of the Sunni faith, but in practice local religious scholars (ulama) attracted the wider populace as definers of doctrine. Unlike the Orthodox or Catholic faith, the structure of the Islamic faiths were not clearly hierarchical as all were theoretically equal before Allah. [23]

1. Ruler

2. Imam

♠ Military levels ♣ 4 ♥

The Army of the Durrani was organized under a hierarchical tribal confederacy. One third were regular troops largely made up of cavalry and some supporting artillery, with the remaining two thirds made up of irregular seasonal troops serving for a campaign. The standing army hierarchy is reflected below. They were paid in cash or with military fiefs in the rich provinces in India. Irregular troops were raised via a coercive levy imposed on subjected tribes, districts and chieftains, and these areas were required to equip the troops themselves. [24]

1. Shah

2. Tribal commanders
3. Permanent soldiers (cavalry and artillery)
4. Irregular seasonal levies (calvary and infantry)

The Army of the Durrani was organized under a hierarchical tribal confederacy. one third were regular troops largely made up of cavalry and some supporting artillery, with the remaining two thirds made up of seasonal irregulars serving for a campaign.[25]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥

The founder of the Dynasty himself had originally been the head officer of Nadir Shah's personal bodyguard and took the four thousand-strong horse cavalry he had commanded with him when he defected to Afghanistan. He also had access to the Turkish Shiite Qizilbash. [26]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ Roughly one in three members of the Durrani military were full time professional fighters. [27]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ absent ♥

Sunni Islam did not have the equivalent of a professional priest. The leader of the daily prayers was given a special title and a person widely thought to be learned would be awarded a title of Imam, but this did not connote a hierarchy of belief. Certain originators of judiciary schools were awarded special titles, but these rare individuals were not the equivalent of saints. The increasing fractured nature of Sunni and Shiite religious controversy led to a divergence in the use of titles to members of the umma. In Afghanistan, local practice could be widely divergent from mainstream Islam. [28]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ absent ♥ The Duranni empire was based on the accretion of political power with-in a pre-existing authoritarian-tribal rule of the Abdali Pashtuns and the Shah as its unchallenged leader. It was not based on a defined permanent theory of statecraft, but rather a synthesis of of Islamic concepts of kingship. Governance took place in part through a loose council of Durrani Sadozai Chieftans. What short term Administrative post that did exist were given to members of the governing tribes. The Duranni were a nation in arms rather than bureaucrats. [29]

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as the few administrative posts given according to membership of tribes, not merit or examination. [30]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥ Military skill and the fluid nature of the hierarchy in jurga meant ranks were very fluid. [31] This doesn't correspond to regular, institutionalized procedures for promotion based on performance.

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ In conquered territories the existing Persian and Indian specialized building were directly annexed into the Durrani empire. See entries of related polities for details.[32]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ A legal code was inherited from conquered areas, but it is unclear if this was actually practiced. [33]


Shari'a law functioned at a local level, but an overarching legal structure was not present given the fractured nature of the empire and the focus on coercive extraction. Legal rights seem to have been, like the late Mugals, restricted to Muslims. Unbelievers were to be kept subdued, and be made to pay the traditional poll tax.[34] In legitimizing their conquest, the Durrani seem to have followed the Sunni school of law of maḏāhib. The presence of Shiite practioners in Khorasan seem to have been tolerated. Pitshtunwali, a legal and moral code that determines social order and responsibilities in Pashtun culture was at odds with the formalized Islamic code, having existed before the islamic conquest of the 7th century and enduring to the present day in the Pashtun border regions.[35]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥ The Ulama were scholars of Islamic thought who also served as lawyers. [36] Not a specialized function.

♠ Courts ♣ absent♥ There were no courts under Patshtunwali, rather 'justice' took place outside of a formalized structure. [37]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥ The code of Patshtunwali was a personal code of honor rather than a formalized code, with justice taking place between clans and individuals. [38]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Taxes were used to maintain a vital irrigation network in the southern part of Afganistan. Furthermore, existing networks of irrigation were present in conquered areas.[39]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred absent ♥ wells, inferred.
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Kandarhar was an important market city. [40]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present♥ Granaries and chaff storage were present for cavalry forces. [41]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ absent ♥ The Duranni 'state' was not in a position to maintain infrastructure. It was a very loose institution. What maintenance or road building that was done was at the local level. In areas that were conquered these assets had been maintained by the previous state in areas like the Sind and India. [42]
♠ Bridges ♣ absent ♥
♠ Canals ♣ absent ♥
♠ Ports ♣ absent ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥ The Pashtun language was used, as well as Persian. [43]
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ e.g. tribute tabulations and tax receipts. Or the commercial records kept by the Hindkis merchants. [44]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Persian [45]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ Persian is a phonetic language. [46]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ These included tribute tabulations and tax receipts from India.
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ The Lunar Arabic Calendar was used, although it had Pashtun replacements of some terminology. [47]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present♥ The Qu'ran [48]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ The Ulaman, or religious scholars, were producing religious texts in Persian, Arabic and local dialects. [49]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ In the sense of textbooks giving instructions to ordinary people on how to perform rituals and daily prayers. [50]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Tarkikh-i Ahmad Shahi, a historical work. [51]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ Makhzan al-Isldm contains discussions of the reality of the phenomenal world. [52]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥ uncoded
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Love poetry and romantic stories were present in written and oral form. [53]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ [54] The Durrani empire produced coins at a number of mints in territories conquered during the initial expansion. Coins made of copper, gold, and silver were issued in Kandahar, Kabul, Peshawar, Attock, Dera Ghazi Khan, Multan, Sind, Lahore, and other regions in the local mints, leading to a wide dispersal of coinage. Multan served as a regional trade centre, with trade links between Afghanistan and the North, and links to access Chinese silk and caravans of indigo. [55]
♠ Tokens ♣ present ♥ [56]
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ At least eight currencies were being circulated in the region [57]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ The coins produced at mints in the Durrani empire. [58]
♠ Paper currency ♣ present ♥ Bills of exchange in Multan called hundi chalan.[59]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ [60] Individual merchants may have had more advanced message capacities, but the state was not providing either postal stations or a general postal service.
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent ♥ State was not providing either postal stations or a general postal service.
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥ State was not providing either postal stations or a general postal service.

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Stephen Dean; Alice Williams; Edward A L Turner; K Basava ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the presence of higher metals.
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the presence of higher metals.
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ [61]
♠ Steel ♣ present♥ Steel used for armour. [62]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ Uzbek contingents and others tribal groups equipped with spears. [63] The Durrani was a gunpowder empire. The other weapons listed below were available, but not a major component to battle. The Persian influx of ḵompāra pistols, the tapānča and żarbza cannons, the bādlīj and ṣaff-pūzan show the presence of antiquated firearms by European standards, but these weapons were sufficient for conquest in the region. High quality firearms were also taken from the Sind and Mughal territories. However, common soldiers and levies could be equipped with the small caliber Snaphance hunting rifle or more primitive arms. Uzbek contingents and others tribal groups went into battle equipped with spears, battle axes, bows and arrows, or a single pistol during the period. [64]
♠ Atlatl ♣ inferred absent ♥ new world weapon
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ [65]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Uzbek contingents and others tribal groups equipped with bows. [66]
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Uzbek contingents and others tribal groups equipped with bows, whic would have been compound bows. [67]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ [68]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ present ♥ The Durrani utilized artillery in both siege craft and open battle. [69]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ present ♥ Primarily matchlocks, made in Kabul, the Sind and other areas. Domestic manufacture was possible, as well as importation of barrels from Constantinople.[70] The elite corps brought in from Persia by the founding Shah of the Durrani were equipped with flintlocks, as the wakīl personal body guard were armed with flintlocks. [71]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ At Panipat 1761 CE the Afghans and Mahrattas "fought on both sides with spears, swords, battle-axes, and even daggers". [72]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ At Panipat 1761 CE the Afghans and Mahrattas "fought on both sides with spears, swords, battle-axes, and even daggers". [73]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ At Panipat 1761 CE the Afghans and Mahrattas "fought on both sides with spears, swords, battle-axes, and even daggers". [74]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ At Panipat 1761 CE the Afghans and Mahrattas "fought on both sides with spears, swords, battle-axes, and even daggers". [75]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ Actually Mules, a crossbreed between a donkey and a horse. [76]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ [77] The Durrani state was an empire sustained and governed through the maintenance of a large number of armed horseman primarily recruited from the Pashtun peoples, a diverse group of ethnic groups linked through the use of the Pashto language.[78]Quick conquest in the period of 1747 CE-1752 CE added Turkmen, Uzbek, Tajik, and Hazara tribes to the growing number of horsemen in the King's army.[79]
♠ Camels ♣ present ♥ zanbūrak (little bee), was a type of swivel gun mounted on the back of a camel (Plate I). Zanbūraks were often fired from a kneeling camel, but could be employed from a trotting one as well [80] Two musketeers armed with zamburaq (swivel gun) were mounted on the back of a camels. More often, shutrnals (what were they?) were mounted on camels.[81]
♠ Elephants ♣ ♥
♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ e.g. for shields. [82] From the late seventeenth century all armies in the region used varying amounts of personal protection. The infantry were armed with swords, spears and matchlocks, whereas the cavalry was equipped with steel Armour and steel armour. Plate was increasingly replaced with chain-mail and armoured helmets and was available for purchase of as booty. Poorer tribesmen would have been armored with looted materials or the cloth turbans and clothes on their backs. [83]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ e.g. for shields. [84]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Shields in use by some soldiers. [85]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Armoured helmets worn by cavalry. [86]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ Worn by cavalry. [87]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ Worn by cavalry. [88]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present♥ Worn by cavalry. [89]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥ Worn by cavalry. [90]
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ Worn by cavalry.[91]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ The Durrani were a land based power, at most using river craft for logistical purposes. [92] As the Durrani were a land based power, coded absent. [93]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥ As the Durrani were a land based power, coded absent. [94]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ As the Durrani were a land based power, coded absent. [95]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Mud brick palisades protected both private dwellings and larger communities. The lands conquered by the Durrani empire had long traditions of fortifications and modern fortifications were present in the Sind and Persia. [96]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ The mud brick palisades used to defend smaller settlements. [97]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ "Built on the grand scale by Ahmad Shah Durrani - the dashing young cavalryman who founded the great Durrani Empire - with huge walls surrounded by a moat and pierced by six massive gates, Kandahar was designed to impress the approaching traveller, friend or foe. The walls were pulled down in the 1940s..."[98] Inferred because this is not a specialist source.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ Stone used in fortifications. [99] "Built on the grand scale by Ahmad Shah Durrani - the dashing young cavalryman who founded the great Durrani Empire - with huge walls surrounded by a moat and pierced by six massive gates, Kandahar was designed to impress the approaching traveller, friend or foe. The walls were pulled down in the 1940s..."[100]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ Armies did fortify their camps in this period. [101]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ The Citadel of Herat 'سکندرۍ کلا'[102]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ KM.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ present ♥ [103]


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Eli J. Levine ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Dynastic rule.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawhid and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [104]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [105]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ [present; absent] ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[106] However, "[d]uring their rule, the Sadozais (1747- 1839) enjoyed a superior status, 'Their persons were sacred; no punishment could be inflicted on them, except by one of their own family; nor could even the head of the Abdalees himself pass sentence of death upon a Saddozye.'" [107]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ [present; absent] ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[108] However, "[d]uring their rule, the Sadozais (1747- 1839) enjoyed a superior status, 'Their persons were sacred; no punishment could be inflicted on them, except by one of their own family; nor could even the head of the Abdalees himself pass sentence of death upon a Saddozye.'" [109]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[110]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [111] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [112] "Pashtunwali is the name of the Pashtun traditional code of behavior, which can be summarized under the terms of nanawati, mediation or protection; badal, retaliation; and melmastia, hospitality. [...] Nanawati is the obligation to give protection to anyone seeking asylum, even at the risk of the protector’s life, and to mediate for the weaker party seeking peace with someone he has injured. [...] Melmastia is considered a sacred duty, and every village has a guesthouse or uses its mosque as a shelter for visitors. A guest’s person and property are protected, and a Pashtun is proud to offer the guest or stranger what he cannot even afford for himself. In a sense, each Afghan tribe constitutes a nation, and no one may enter a tribe’s territory without the permission of the tribe and the assurance of safe conduct, badragga. A traveler pays for an armed escort who will convey him through the territory of the tribe and hand him over to a badragga of a neighboring tribe." [113]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [114]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [115] [116] [117]

References

  1. Barfield, Thomas. Afghanistan: a cultural and political history. Princeton University Press, 2010. pp. 97-109
  2. Barfield, Thomas. Afghanistan: a cultural and political history. Princeton University Press, 2010. pp. 97-109
  3. Dani, Ahmad Hasan, V. M Masson, J Harmatta, Baij Nath Puri, G. F Etemadi, Boris Anatolʹevich Litvinskiĭ, Guangda Zhang, et al. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Vol. V The Sixteenth to the Mid-Nineteenth Centuries. Paris: Unesco, 1992., pp.288-301.
  4. Dani, Ahmad Hasan, V. M Masson, J Harmatta, Baij Nath Puri, G. F Etemadi, Boris Anatolʹevich Litvinskiĭ, Guangda Zhang, et al. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Vol. V The Sixteenth to the Mid-Nineteenth Centuries. Paris: Unesco, 1992., pp.288-301.
  5. Barfield, Thomas. Afghanistan: a cultural and political history. Princeton University Press, 2010. pp. 97-109
  6. Barfield, Thomas. Afghanistan: a cultural and political history. Princeton University Press, 2010. pp. 97-109; Runion, Meredith L. The history of Afghanistan. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007.pp. 69-73
  7. (Barfield 2010, 97-109) Thomas Barfield. 2010. Afghanistan: a cultural and political history. Princeton University Press.
  8. (Barfield 2010, 97-109) Thomas Barfield. 2010. Afghanistan: a cultural and political history. Princeton University Press.
  9. (Barfield 2010, 97-109) Thomas Barfield. 2010. Afghanistan: a cultural and political history. Princeton University Press.
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